Commercial building devices of ship systems and pipelines
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Internet of Things IoT is a sprawling set of technologies and use cases that has no clear, single definition. One workable view frames IoT as the use of network-connected devices, embedded in the physical environment, to improve some existing process or to enable a new scenario not previously possible.
These devices, or things , connect to the network to provide information they gather from the environment through sensors, or to allow other systems to reach out and act on the world through actuators. They could be connected versions of common objects you might already be familiar with, or new and purpose-built devices for functions not yet realized.
They could be devices that you own personally and carry with you or keep in your home, or they could be embedded in factory equipment, or part of the fabric of the city you live in. Each of them is able to convert valuable information from the real world into digital data that provides increased visibility into how your users interact with your products, services, or applications. The specific use cases and opportunities across different industries are numerous, and in many ways the world of IoT is just getting started.
What emerges from these scenarios is a set of common challenges and patterns. IoT projects have additional dimensions that increase their complexity when compared to other cloud-centric technology applications, including:.
This guide explains the elements you can combine with Google Cloud Platform to build a robust, maintainable, end-to-end IoT solution on Cloud Platform. A device includes hardware and software that directly interact with the world. Devices connect to a network to communicate with each other, or to centralized applications. Devices might be directly or indirectly connected to the internet. A gateway enables devices that are not directly connected to the Internet to reach cloud services.
Although the term gateway has a specific function in networking, it is also used to describe a class of device that processes data on behalf of a group or cluster of devices. The data from each device is sent to Cloud Platform, where it is processed and combined with data from other devices, and potentially with other business-transactional data.
Each device can provide or consume various types of information. Each form of information might best be handled by a different backend system, and each system should be specialized around the data rate, volume, and preferred API. This section lists and describes common categories of information found in IoT scenarios. Metadata contains information about a device. Most metadata is immutable or rarely changes. Examples of metadata fields include:.
State information describes the current status of the device, not of the environment. It is updated, but usually not frequently. Data collected by the device is called telemetry. This is the eyes-and-ears data that IoT devices provide to applications.
Telemetry is read-only data about the environment, usually collected through sensors. Each source of telemetry results in a channel. Telemetry data might be preserved as a stateful variable on the device or in the cloud. Although each device might send only a single data point every minute, when you multiply that data by a large number of devices, you quickly need to apply big data strategies and patterns.
Commands are actions performed by a device. Commands often have traits that constrain the choices available in your implementation. These traits include:. Commands are often not idempotent, which means each duplicate message usually results in a different outcome.
Like messaging systems, the implementation of a command function determines the delivery semantics, such as "at least once" or "exactly once". The command mechanism can include a return value, or might rely on the confirmation being made through a separate return message or by reflecting the expected change in the state data. Commands might be of limited temporal relevance, so they should include a time-to-live TTL or other expiration value. Operational information is data that's most relevant to the operation of the device as opposed to the business application.
This might include things such as CPU operating temperature and battery state. This kind of data might not have long-term analytical value, but it has short-term value to help maintain the operating state, such as responding to breakages and correcting performance degradation of software after updates. It's not always clear what constitutes a device. Many physical things are modular, which means it can be hard to decide whether the whole machine is the device, or each module is a discrete device.
There's no single, right answer to this question. As you design your IoT project, you'll need to think about the various levels of abstraction in your design and make decisions about how to represent the physical things and their relationships to each other. The specific requirements of your application will help you understand whether something that generates information should be treated as a device, and therefore deserves its own ID, or is simply a channel or state detail of another device.
As an example, consider a project that has the goal of monitoring the temperature of rooms in a hotel. In each room there might be three sensors: one at the floor by the door, one on the ceiling, and one next to the bed. You can model this setup by representing each sensor as a device:.
You could also model the entire room as a device. While you usually wouldn't consider a room to be a device, in IoT the device abstraction is really about what you manage and record from as a unit ; it isn't always limited to a single gizmo you can hold in your hand. Viewed that way, you could model the hotel room as a device that contains three sensors:.
Depending on the goals, one of these two data representations might be more correct than the other. Note the average temperature field in the second example. This might be what the hotel is looking for.
Is metadata from each sensor most valuable on its own, or do the separate pieces of metadata make more sense applied to the room as a whole? What if the room was a suite and the three locations were the bathroom, lounge, and bedroom?
These are the sorts of questions you'd need to ask yourself when deciding how to model the data. The domain model of the connected application defines the exact boundary of what constitutes the device. When choosing hardware, consider the following factors, which are affected by how the hardware is deployed:.
The devices used to interact with the physical world contain components, or are connected to peripherals, that enable sensor input or actuator output. For example, the sensitivity or complexity of the motion you need to detect will determine what kind of accelerometer you choose, or whether you need a gyro instead.
If you are doing gas detection, the type of gases that the sensor can accurately detect matters. When using a device to produce output, you must consider requirements such as how loud a buzzer needs to sound, how fast a motor needs to turn, or how many amps a relay needs to carry. For example, a stepper motor can be set to a specific direction that might be represented in device state data, while a microphone might be steadily sampling data in terms of frequencies, which is best transmitted as telemetry.
These components are connected to the logic systems of the device through a hardware interface. There is an incredible amount of diversity in the specific hardware available to you for building IoT applications. This diversity starts with the options for hardware platforms. Common examples of platforms include single-board-computers such as the Beaglebone , and Raspberry Pi , as well as microcontroller platforms such as the Arduino series , boards from Particle , and the Adafruit Feather.
Each of these platforms lets you connect multiple types of sensor and actuator modules through a hardware interface. These platforms interface with the modules using a layered approach similar to those used in general-purpose computing. If you think about the common, everyday computer mouse, you can consider the layers of peripheral, interface, driver and application, as illustrated in the following diagram.
On a typical operating system, such as Linux or Windows, the hardware input is interpreted by a driver, which in turn relies on OS services, and might be part of the kernel. For simplicity, the following diagram omits the operating system. Most hardware interfaces are serial interfaces. Serial interfaces generally use multiple wires to control the flow and timing of binary information along the primary data wire.
Each type of hardware interface defines a method of communicating between a peripheral and the central processor. IoT hardware platforms use a number of common interfaces. Sensor and actuator modules can support one or more of these interfaces:. As their name implies, these pins are provided by the manufacturer to enable custom usage scenarios that the manufacturer didn't design for.
PWM lets you very quickly switch a power source on and off, with each "on" phase being a pulse of a particular duration, or width. The effect in the device can be a lower or higher power level. Analog pins might have access to an onboard analog-to-digital conversion ADC circuit. An ADC periodically samples a continuous, analog waveform, such as an analog audio signal, giving each sample a digital value between zero and one, relative to the system voltage.
The range depends on the resolution of the ADC. For example an 8-bit ADC can produce digital values from 0 to , while a bit ADC can yield a wider range of values, from 0 to More values means higher resolution and thus a more faithful digital representation of any given analog signal. A higher sampling rate results in a higher maximum frequency in the digital data. For example, an audio signal sampled at 44, Hz produces a digital audio file with a frequency response up to 22, Hz, ignoring typical filtering and other processing.
The bit precision dictates the resolution of the amplitude of the signal. Inter-Integrated Circuit serial bus uses a protocol that enables multiple modules to be assigned a discrete address on the bus.
Serial Peripheral Interface Bus devices employ a master-slave architecture, with a single master and full-duplex communication. SPI specifies four logic signals:. UART is required when serial data must be laid out in memory in a parallel fashion. The OS also provides very low-level support for the different hardware interfaces.
Generally these abstractions are not easy to use directly, and frequently the OS does not provide abstractions for the wide range of sensor and actuator modules you might encounter in building IoT solutions. You can take advantage of libraries that abstract hardware interfaces across platforms.
These libraries enable you to work with a device, such as a motion detector, in a more straightforward way. Using a library lets you focus on collecting the information the module provides to your application instead of on the low-level details of working directly with hardware.
Some libraries provide abstractions that represent peripherals in the form of lightweight drivers on top of the hardware interfaces.
Azure Machine Learning pipelines allow you to create workflows in your machine learning projects. These workflows have a number of benefits:. These benefits become significant as soon as your machine learning project moves beyond pure exploration and into iteration.
Internet of Things IoT is a sprawling set of technologies and use cases that has no clear, single definition. One workable view frames IoT as the use of network-connected devices, embedded in the physical environment, to improve some existing process or to enable a new scenario not previously possible. These devices, or things , connect to the network to provide information they gather from the environment through sensors, or to allow other systems to reach out and act on the world through actuators. They could be connected versions of common objects you might already be familiar with, or new and purpose-built devices for functions not yet realized. They could be devices that you own personally and carry with you or keep in your home, or they could be embedded in factory equipment, or part of the fabric of the city you live in.
Pipelines in Canada
Signing up enhances your TCE experience with the ability to save items to your personal reading list, and access the interactive map. Pipelines are systems of connected pipes used to transport liquids and gases — namely oil and natural gas — across long distances from source to market. More than , km of pipelines criss-cross the country, part of a larger oil and gas sector that employs between , and , Canadians. Yet pipelines have also been controversial in Canada over fears that the fossil fuel use they facilitate could be significantly contributing to climate change. In recent years, Indigenous groups, environmentalists, municipalities, mayors and labour unions have opposed numerous pipeline projects they believe could contaminate local waterways through spills and leaks. The construction of pipelines to carry crude oil and natural gas to domestic and eventually foreign markets soon followed. For a century after the Sarnia-area oil discovery, the pace of pipeline construction was slow, with just three major routes from Turner Valley , Alberta to Calgary ; coastal Maine to Montreal ; and the US Midwest to Ontario in production. But in the late s, sufficient reserves of oil and natural gas were developed in Alberta at the Leduc No. By the end of the s, new pipelines were being built to ship oil from distant wells into Edmonton and, from there, to Vancouver and south to link up with American pipelines. This capacity expanded greatly from the s to s with the construction of additional pipelines linking Canadian oil and natural gas fields with refineries in Alaska, Illinois and Oklahoma.
Subsea structures and pipeline design
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Comment 0. Fog computing, a paradigm that aims to bring cloud-like services closer to users and data sources , has become quite popular among IoT firms. Not only does it allow speeding up reaction to events and acting on perishable insights, but it also helps companies conserve core network bandwidth.
The Future of Hydrogen
Hydrogen technologies have experienced cycles of excessive expectations followed by disillusion. Nonetheless, a growing body of evidence suggests these technologies form an attractive option for the deep decarbonisation of global energy systems, and that recent improvements in their cost and performance point towards economic viability as well. This paper is a comprehensive review of the potential role that hydrogen could play in the provision of electricity, heat, industry, transport and energy storage in a low-carbon energy system, and an assessment of the status of hydrogen in being able to fulfil that potential.
Digital technologies are everywhere, affecting the way we live, work, travel and play. Digitalisation is helping improve the safety, productivity, accessibility and sustainability of energy systems around the world. But it is also raising new security and privacy risks, while disrupting markets, businesses and workers. The report examines the impact of digital technologies on energy demand sectors, looks at how energy suppliers can use digital tools to improve operations, and explores the transformational potential of digitalisation to help create a highly interconnected energy system. This report seeks to provide greater clarity to decision makers in government and industry on what digitalisation means for energy, shining a light on its enormous potential and most pressing challenges.
How to Ensure Security of Your Real-Time Data Analytics Pipelines
The sabotage attacks on Saudi oil tankers in the Gulf of Yemen were carried out using limpet mines, experts believe. The mysterious 'sabotage' has sent tensions spiralling in the Middle East as the U. Amid a furious exchange of words, a key adviser to Iranian president Rouhani warned of a looming conflict and mocked Trump ally John Bolton, saying: 'That's what happens when you listen to the mustache. But both sides today tried to calm the situation. Iranian supreme leader Ayatollah Ali Khamenei said there 'won't be any war' while U. Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, said the U. Trump also dismissed claims that the U. Donald Trump is mulling over the idea of sending , troops to the Middle East while Iran's President Hassan Rouhani has warned his country is 'too great to be intimidated by anyone'.
Within industry , piping is a system of pipes used to convey fluids liquids and gases from one location to another. The engineering discipline of piping design studies the efficient transport of fluid. Industrial process piping and accompanying in-line components can be manufactured from wood , fiberglass , glass , steel , aluminum , plastic , copper , and concrete. The in-line components, known as fittings ,  valves , and other devices, typically sense and control the pressure , flow rate and temperature of the transmitted fluid, and usually are included in the field of piping design or piping engineering , though the sensors and automatic controlling devices may alternatively be treated as part of instrumentation and control design.
Robert J. Alonzo, a registered professional electrical engineer in Metairie, Louisiana, USA, has over 40 years' electrical engineering experience, specializing in the project management, design and analysis of electrical systems for commercial, industrial and marine projects. He is presently involved with the electrical design of offshore petroleum and windmill projects. William Andrew , 21 thg 12, - trang.
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