Industry factory unified assemblies and parts used in the automotive industry
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In Henry Ford began production of the Model T automobile. Based on his original Model A design first manufactured in , the Model T took five years to develop. Its creation inaugurated what we know today as the mass production assembly line.
This revolutionary idea was based on the concept of simply assembling interchangeable component parts. Prior to this time, coaches and buggies had been hand-built in small numbers by specialized craftspeople who rarely duplicated any particular unit. Ford's innovative design reduced the number of parts needed as well as the number of skilled fitters who had always formed the bulk of the assembly operation, giving Ford a tremendous advantage over his competition. Ford's first venture into automobile assembly with the Model A involved setting up assembly stands on which the whole vehicle was built, usually by a single assembler who fit an entire section of the car together in one place.
This person performed the same activity over and over at his stationary assembly stand. To provide for more efficiency, Ford had parts delivered as needed to each work station. In this way each assembly fitter took about 8.
By the time the Model T was being developed Ford had decided to use multiple assembly stands with assemblers moving from stand to stand, each performing a specific function.
This process reduced the assembly time for each fitter from 8. Ford soon recognized that walking from stand to stand wasted time and created jam-ups in the production process as faster workers overtook slower ones. In Detroit in , he solved this problem by introducing the first moving assembly line, a conveyor that moved the vehicle past a stationary assembler. By eliminating the need for workers to move between stations, Ford cut the assembly task for each worker from 2. The first conveyor line consisted of metal strips to which the vehicle's wheels were attached.
The metal strips were attached to a belt that rolled the length of the factory and then, beneath the floor, returned to the beginning area. This reduction in the amount of human effort required to assemble an automobile caught the attention of automobile assemblers throughout the world.
Ford's mass production drove the automobile industry for nearly five decades and was eventually adopted by almost every other industrial manufacturer.
Although technological advancements have enabled many improvements to modern day automobile assembly operations, the basic concept of stationary workers installing parts on a vehicle as it passes their work stations has not changed drastically over the years. Although the bulk of an automobile is virgin steel, petroleum-based products plastics and vinyls have come to represent an increasingly large percentage of automotive components.
The light-weight materials derived from petroleum have helped to lighten some models by as much as thirty percent. As the price of fossil fuels continues to rise, the preference for lighter, more fuel efficient vehicles will become more pronounced. Introducing a new model of automobile generally takes three to five years from inception to assembly.
Ideas for new models are developed to respond to unmet pubic needs and preferences. Trying to predict what the public will want to drive in five years is no small feat, yet automobile companies have successfully designed automobiles that fit public tastes.
With the help of computer-aided design equipment, designers develop basic concept drawings that help them visualize the proposed vehicle's appearance. Based on this simulation, they then construct clay models that can be studied by styling experts familiar with what the public is likely to accept. Aerodynamic engineers also review the models, studying air-flow parameters and doing feasibility studies on crash tests.
Only after all models have been reviewed and accepted are tool designers permitted to begin building the tools that will manufacture the component parts of the new model. The photo is from about The automobile, for decades the quintessential American industrial product, did not have its origins in the United States.
In , Etienne Lenoir, a Belgian mechanic, introduced an internal combustion engine that proved useful as a source of stationary power. In , Nicholas Otto, a German manufacturer, developed his four-stroke "explosion" engine. By , one of his engineers, Gottlieb Daimler, was building the first of four experimental vehicles powered by a modified Otto internal combustion engine. Also in , another German manufacturer, Carl Benz, introduced a three-wheeled, self-propelled vehicle. In , the Benz became the first automobile offered for sale to the public.
By , automotive technology was dominated by the French, led by Emile Lavassor. Lavassor developed the basic mechanical arrangement of the car, placing the engine in the front of the chassis, with the crankshaft perpendicular to the axles.
In that same year, Henry Ford demonstrated his first experimental vehicle, the Quadricycle. The Model T quickly became the standard by which other cars were measured; ten years later, half of all cars on the road were Model Ts. It had a simple four-cylinder, twenty-horsepower engine and a planetary transmission giving two gears forward and one backward. It was sturdy, had high road clearance to negotiate the rutted roads of the day, and was easy to operate and maintain.
All of the components that go into the automobile are produced at other sites. This means the thousands of component pieces that comprise the car must be manufactured, tested, packaged, and shipped to the assembly plants, often on the same day they will be used. This requires no small amount of planning. To accomplish it, most automobile manufacturers require outside parts vendors to subject their component parts to rigorous testing and inspection audits similar to those used by the assembly plants.
In this way the assembly plants can anticipate that the products arriving at their receiving docks are Statistical Process Control SPC approved and free from defects. Once the component parts of the automobile begin to be assembled at the automotive factory, production control specialists can follow the progress of each embryonic automobile by means of its Vehicle Identification Number VIN , assigned at the start of the production line.
In many of the more advanced assembly plants a small radio frequency transponder is attached to the chassis and floor pan. This sending unit carries the VIN information and monitors its progress along the assembly process. Knowing what operations the vehicle has been through, where it is going, and when it should arrive at the next assembly station gives production management personnel the ability to electronically control the manufacturing sequence.
Throughout the assembly process quality audit stations keep track of vital information concerning the integrity of various functional components of the vehicle. This idea comes from a change in quality control ideology over the years.
Formerly, quality control was seen as a final inspection process that sought to discover defects only after the vehicle was built. In contrast, today quality is seen as a process built right into the design of the vehicle as well as the assembly process. In this way assembly operators can stop the conveyor if workers find a defect. Corrections can then be made, or supplies checked to determine whether an entire batch of components is bad.
Vehicle recalls are costly and manufacturers do everything possible to ensure the integrity of their product before it is shipped to the customer. After the vehicle is assembled a validation process is conducted at the end of the assembly line to verify quality audits from the various inspection points throughout the assembly process. This final audit tests for properly fitting panels; dynamics; squeaks and rattles; functioning electrical components; and engine, chassis, and wheel alignment.
In many assembly plants vehicles are periodically pulled from the audit line and given full functional tests. All efforts today are put forth to ensure that quality and reliability are built into the assembled product. The development of the electric automobile will owe more to innovative solar and aeronautical engineering and advanced satellite and radar technology than to traditional automotive design and construction. The electric car has no engine, exhaust system, transmission, muffler, radiator, or spark plugs.
It will require neither tune-ups nor—truly revolutionary—gasoline. Batteries to power these motors will come from high performance cells capable of generating more than kilowatts of power. And, unlike the lead-acid batteries of the past and present, future batteries will be environmentally safe and recyclable. Integral to the braking system of the vehicle will be a power inverter that converts direct current electricity back into the battery pack system once the accelerator is let off, thus acting as a generator to the battery system even as the car is driven long into the future.
The growth of automobile use and the increasing resistance to road building have made our highway systems both congested and obsolete. But new electronic vehicle technologies that permit cars to navigate around the congestion and even drive themselves may soon become possible.
Turning over the operation of our automobiles to computers would mean they would gather information from the roadway about congestion and find the fastest route to their instructed destination, thus making better use of limited highway space. The advent of the electric car will come because of a rare convergence of circumstance and ability. Growing intolerance for pollution combined with extraordinary technological advancements will change the global transportation paradigm that will carry us into the twenty-first century.
Abernathy, William. Johns Hopkins University Press, Society of Manufacturing Engineers, Inc. Hounshell, David. From the American System to Mass Production. Lamming, Richard. Prentice Hall, Making the Car. Mortimer, J. Advanced Manufacturing in the Automotive Industry. Springer-Verlag New York, Inc. Mortimer, John. Air Science Co. Nevins, Allen and Frank E.
Scribners, Seiffert, Ulrich. Automobile Technology of the Future. Society of Automotive Engineers, Inc. Sloan, Alfred P. My Years with General Motors. Doubleday, October 17, , p. Toggle navigation. Made How Volume 1 Automobile Automobile. On automobile assembly lines, much of the work is now done by robots rather than humans.
In , Henry Ford introduced the moving assembly line to a burgeoning automotive industry, revolutionizing global manufacturing forever. These were performed by small groups of workers, assisted by a single rope pulling each chassis along the line. Incredibly, this single innovation compacted the vehicle assembly time from 12 hours to just 90 minutes , enabling labor costs and crucially, vehicle price to be radically reduced. The rest, quite literally, is history. For a host of good reasons, Original Equipment Manufacturers OEMs and dealer networks often operate distinct marketing and CRM tools, unable to connect customer insight between themselves — or across their channels and touchpoints.
Account Options Anmelden. Meine Mediathek Hilfe Erweiterte Buchsuche. Buy Direct from Elsevier Amazon. Agile manufacturing is defined as the capability of surviving and prospering in a competitive environment of continuous and unpredictable change by reacting quickly and effectively to changing markets, driven by customer-designed products and services.
A road map to the future for the auto industry
The automotive industry in Malaysia consists of 27 vehicle producers and over component manufacturers. The automotive industry in Malaysia traces its origins back to the British colonial era. Ford Malaya became the first automobile assembly plant in Southeast Asia upon its establishment in Singapore in The automotive industry in post-independence Malaysia was established in to spur national industrialisation. The government offered initiatives to encourage the local assembly of vehicles and manufacturing of automobile components. In , the government became directly involved in the automotive industry through the establishment of national car company Proton, followed by Perodua in Since the s, the government had sought to liberalise the domestic automotive industry through free-trade agreements, privatisation and harmonisation of UN regulations. The Malaysian automotive industry is Southeast Asia's sole pioneer of indigenous car companies, namely Proton and Perodua. In , Proton helped Malaysia become the 11th country in the world with the capability to fully design, engineer and manufacture cars from the ground up. The automotive industry in Malaysia primarily serves domestic demand, and only several thousand complete built up CBU vehicles are exported annually.
Automotive industry in Malaysia
Charles W. Hill is the Hughes M. His research interests focus on competition and competitive analysis, corporate strategy, international business, organizational structure and corporate governance. Hill has published more than 50 articles in peer-reviewed academic journals and has served on the editorial boards of several top-tier journals, including the Academy of Management Review and the Strategic Management Journal. He also is the author of a successful international business textbook.
This article reports on a recent survey of Canadian automotive component manufacturing plant managers that focused on issues related to innovation and the influence of public policy on plant-level competitive strategies and performance. Three questions are addressed: a Do public policies inhibit or contribute to plant success, b does the experience of Canadian-owned plants differ from that of foreign-owned plants, and c does the experience of small- and medium-sized plants differ from that of large plants? The analysis is first situated within the context of the industry and recent Canadian automotive and manufacturing policy and concludes with the implications of our findings for public policy development.
Five common automotive robot applications
DXC Technology helps our clients achieve their key plant objectives: efficiency, stability and with decreased downtime. In the design and engineering processes, companies need to capture the various data formats that exist and make them seamlessly available on demand to thousands of engineers spread across the globe. By using digital technology, a digital factory allows companies to model, simulate and analyze procedures and systems to help shape the production lifecycle. Our experts help you define a viable roadmap for becoming a digital company with solutions such as our Industry 4.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Audi Smart Factory - Future of Audi Production
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Magna: Transfer of Production Planning Experience from the Czech Plant to Germany
This book provides the latest models, methods and guidelines for networked enterprises to enhance their competitiveness and move towards innovative high performance and agile industrial systems. In the new global market, competitiveness and economic growth rely greatly on the move toward innovative high performance industrial systems and agile networked enterprises through the creation and consolidation of non-hierarchical manufacturing networks of multi-national SMEs as opposed to networks based on powerful large-scale companies. Network performance can be significantly improved through more harmonious and equitable peer-to-peer inter-enterprise relationships, conforming decentralized and collaborative decision-making models.
Digitalization takes productivity to the fast lane
General Motors experienced phenomenal growth during its formative years. Through a series of various strategic acquisitions and shrewd business moves, the company quickly became the largest automaker in the world. By the mids, GM accounted for 44 percent of U. At the time, it controlled more than 50 percent of the U.
The new IFR President, Steven Wyatt, has a decade of international experience gained in the flexible automation industry. Wyatt holds a degree in Chemical Engineering from the University of Edinburgh. As its new President, it is my pleasure to carry on his successful work. Alex Salvador is Bachelor in Economics and MBA from the University of Barcelona, and has developed his entire professional career in the industrial business environment, occupying management positions in both multinational and SMEs, in the areas of commercial-marketing and general direction.
The automotive industry has long been a trailblazer in robotic technology. The first ever industrial robot, the Unimate, was installed in a General Motors factory in Since then, the automotive industry has been the biggest buyer of robotic automation equipment. After several decades of increasing adoption of industrial robots, the number and types of robotic applications have expanded greatly. Today, automotive robots offer many benefits to automotive manufacturers in several different ways.
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Magna is a leader in the automotive industry for the production and supply of components. Every year it places in the higher ranks of the top global automotive industry suppliers. In it was ranked third by Automotive News magazine. Magna is known worldwide.