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Manufactory commercial video recording and playback equipment

Manufactory commercial video recording and playback equipment

This is the first part of a four-part article regarding the origins and uses of matrix and catalog numbers in Gilbert and Sullivan recordings. This series of articles deals with the concurrent evolution of the recording industry and the expanding discography of the Gilbert and Sullivan operettas and related works. Many of the web pages on this site present detailed tables showing matrix and catalog numbers of recordings from the 78rpm era. Collectors and historians of old records have long known the importance of such numbers, but today a new generation of listeners is discovering these recordings, thanks to the popularity of CD re-issues. This article explains the origin and uses of these numbers in some depth. It is hoped that new aficionados of 78rpm records, as well as seasoned collectors, will find their study of these historical performances enhanced by a deeper understanding of this topic.

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Matrix and Catalog Numbers in G&S Discography

A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones , signal processors , amplifiers , and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience. A sound reinforcement system for a rock concert in a stadium may be very complex, including hundreds of microphones, complex live sound mixing and signal processing systems, tens of thousands of watts of amplifier power, and multiple loudspeaker arrays , all overseen by a team of audio engineers and technicians.

On the other hand, a sound reinforcement system can be as simple as a small public address PA system, consisting of, for example, a single microphone connected to a watt amplified loudspeaker for a singer-guitarist playing in a small coffeehouse. In both cases, these systems reinforce sound to make it louder or distribute it to a wider audience. Some audio engineers and others in the professional audio industry disagree over whether these audio systems should be called sound reinforcement SR systems or PA systems.

Distinguishing between the two terms by technology and capability is common, while others distinguish by intended use e. In some regions or markets, the distinction between the two terms is important, though the terms are considered interchangeable in many professional circles. A typical sound reinforcement system consists of; input transducers e. These primary parts involve varying numbers of individual components [5] to achieve the desired goal of reinforcing and clarifying the sound to the audience, performers, or other individuals.

Sound reinforcement in a large format system typically involves a signal path that starts with the signal inputs, which may be instrument pickups on an electric guitar or electric bass or a microphone that a vocalist is singing into or a microphone placed in front of an instrument or guitar amplifier. These signal inputs are plugged into the input jacks of a thick multicore cable often called a snake.

The snake then delivers the signals of all of the inputs to one or more mixing consoles. In a coffeehouse or small nightclub, the snake may be only routed to a single mixing console, which an audio engineer will use to adjust the sound and volume of the onstage vocals and instruments that the audience hears through the main speakers and adjust the volume of the monitor speakers that are aimed at the performers.

Mid- to large-size performing venues typically route the onstage signals to two mixing consoles : the front of house FOH , and the stage monitor system , which is often a second mixer at the side of the stage.

In these cases, at least two audio engineers are required; one to do the main mix for the audience at FOH and another to do the monitor mix for the performers on stage.

Once the signal arrives at an input on a mixing console, this signal can be adjusted in many ways by the sound engineer. A signal can be equalized e. The signal may also be routed into an external effects processor , such as a reverb effect, which outputs a wet effected version of the signal, which is typically mixed in varying amounts with the dry effect-free signal.

Many electronic effects units are used in sound reinforcement systems, including digital delay and reverb. Some concerts use pitch correction effects e. Mixing consoles also have additional sends , also referred to as auxes or aux sends an abbreviation for "auxiliary send" , on each input channel so that a different mix can be created and sent elsewhere for another purpose.

One usage for aux sends is to create a mix of the vocal and instrument signals for the monitor mix this is what the onstage singers and musicians hear from their monitor speakers or in-ear monitors. Another use of an aux send is to select varying amounts of certain channels via the aux send knobs on each channel , and then route these signals to an effects processor.

A common example of the second use of aux sends is to send all of the vocal signals from a rock band through a reverb effect. While reverb is usually added to vocals in the main mix, it is not usually added to electric bass and other rhythm section instruments.

The processed input signals are then mixed to the master faders on the console. The next step in the signal path generally depends on the size of the system in place. In smaller systems, the main outputs are often sent to an additional equalizer, or directly to a power amplifier , with one or more loudspeakers typically two, one on each side of the stage in smaller venues, or a large number in big venues that are connected to that amplifier.

In large-format systems, the signal is typically first routed through an equalizer then to a crossover. A crossover splits the signal into multiple frequency bands with each band being sent to separate amplifiers and speaker enclosures for low, middle, and high-frequency signals.

Low-frequency signals are sent to amplifiers and then to subwoofers , and middle and high-frequency sounds are typically sent to amplifiers which power full-range speaker cabinets. Using a crossover to separate the sound into low, middle and high frequencies can lead to a "cleaner", clearer sound see bi-amplification than routing all of the frequencies through a single full-range speaker system.

Nevertheless, many small venues still use a single full-range speaker system, as it is easier to set up and less expensive.

Many types of input transducers can be found in a sound reinforcement system, with microphones being the most commonly used input device. Microphones can be classified according to their method of transduction, polar pattern or their functional application. Most microphones used in sound reinforcement are either dynamic or condenser microphones. One type of directional microphone, called cardioid mics, are widely used in live sound, because they reduce pickup from the side and rear, helping to avoid unwanted feedback from the stage monitor system.

Microphones used for sound reinforcement are positioned and mounted in many ways, including base-weighted upright stands, podium mounts, tie-clips, instrument mounts, and headset mounts.

Microphones on stands are also placed in front of instrument amplifiers to pick up the sound. Headset mounted and tie-clip mounted microphones are often used with wireless transmission to allow performers or speakers to move freely. Early adopters of headset mounted microphones technology included country singer Garth Brooks , [6] Kate Bush , and Madonna. Other types of input transducers include magnetic pickups used in electric guitars and electric basses, contact microphones used on stringed instruments, and pianos and phonograph pickups cartridges used in record players.

Electronic instruments such as synthesizers can have their output signal routed directly to the mixing console. A DI unit may be necessary to adapt some of these sources to the inputs of the console.

Wireless systems are typically used for electric guitar, bass, handheld microphones and in-ear monitor systems. This lets performers move about the stage during the show or even go out into the audience without the worry of tripping over or disconnecting cables. Mixing consoles are the heart of a sound reinforcement system.

This is where the sound engineer can adjust the volume and tone of each input, whether it is a vocalist's microphone or the signal from an electric bass , and mix, equalize and add effects to these sound sources. Doing the mixing for a live show requires a mix of technical and artistic skills. A sound engineer needs to have an expert knowledge of speaker and amplifier set-up, effects units and other technologies and a good "ear" for what the music should sound like in order to create a good mix.

Multiple consoles can be used for different purposes in a single sound reinforcement system. The front of house FOH mixing console is typically located where the operator can see the action on stage and hear what the audience hears. For broadcast and recording applications, the mixing console may be placed within an enclosed booth or outside in an OB van. Large music productions often use a separate stage monitor mixing console which is dedicated to creating mixes for the performers' on-stage.

These consoles are typically placed at the side of the stage so that the operator can communicate with the performers on stage. Small PA systems for venues such as bars and clubs are now available with features that were formerly only available on professional-level equipment, such as digital reverb effects, graphic equalizers , and, in some models, feedback prevention circuits which electronically sense and prevent audio feedback it becomes a problem.

Digital effects units may offer multiple pre-set and variable reverb, echo and related effects. Digital loudspeaker management systems offer sound engineers digital delay to ensure speakers are in sync with each other , limiting, crossover functions, EQ filters, compression and other functions in a single rack-mountable unit.

In previous decades, sound engineers typically had to transport a substantial number of rack-mounted analog effects unit devices to accomplish these tasks. Equalizers are electronic devices that allow audio engineers to control the tone and frequencies of the sound in a channel, group e.

The bass and treble controls on a home stereo are a simple type of equalizer. Equalizers exist in professional sound reinforcement systems in three forms: shelving equalizers typically for a whole range of bass and treble frequencies , graphic equalizers and parametric equalizers. Graphic equalizers have faders vertical slide controls which together resemble a frequency response curve plotted on a graph. The faders can be used to boost or cut specific frequency bands.

Using equalizers, frequencies which are too weak, such as a singer with modest projection in their lower register, can be boosted. Frequencies which are too loud, such as a "boomy" sounding bass drum , or an overly resonant dreadnought guitar can be cut. Sound reinforcement systems typically use graphic equalizers with one-third octave frequency centers. These are typically used to equalize output signals going to the main loudspeaker system or the monitor speakers on stage.

Parametric equalizers are often built into each channel in mixing consoles, typically for the mid-range frequencies. They are also available as separate rack-mount units which can be connected to a mixing board. Parametric equalizers typically use knobs and sometimes buttons. The audio engineer can select which frequency band to cut or boost, and then use additional knobs to adjust how much to cut or boost this frequency range. Parametric equalizers first became popular in the s and have remained the program equalizer of choice for many engineers since then.

High-pass and low-pass filters restrict a given channel's bandwidth extremes. Cutting very low frequency sound signals termed infrasonic , or subsonic reduces the waste of amplifier power which does not produce audible sound and which moreover can be hard on the low-range speakers. A low-pass filter to cut ultrasonic energy is useful to prevent interference from radio frequencies, lighting control, or digital circuitry creeping into the power amplifiers. Such filters are often paired with graphic and parametric equalizers to give the audio engineer full control of the frequency range.

High-pass filters and low-pass filters used together function as a band-pass filter, eliminating undesirable frequencies both above and below the auditory spectrum. A band-stop filter , does the opposite. It allows all frequencies to pass except for one band in the middle. A feedback suppressor, using an microprocessor , automatically detects the onset of feedback and applies a narrow band-stop filter a notch filter at specific frequency or frequencies pertaining to the feedback.

Compressors are designed to help the audio engineer to manage the dynamic range loudness of an audio signal, or a group of audio signals. Prior to the invention of automatic compressors, audio engineers accomplished the same goal by "riding the faders", listening carefully to the mix and lowering the faders of any singer or instrument which was getting too loud.

A compressor accomplishes this by reducing the gain of a signal that is above a defined level the threshold by a defined amount the ratio. A compressor with an infinite ratio is typically referred to as a limiter. The speed that the compressor adjusts the gain of the signal called the attack is typically adjustable as is the final output of the device.

Compressor applications vary widely from objective system design criterion to subjective applications determined by variances in program material and engineer preference.

Some system design criteria specify limiters for component protection and gain structure control. Artistic signal manipulation is a subjective technique widely utilized by mix engineers to improve clarity or to creatively alter the signal in relation to the program material.

An example of artistic compression is the typical heavy compression used on the various components of a modern rock drum kit. The drums are processed to be perceived as sounding more punchy and full. A noise gate sets a threshold where if it is quieter it will not let the signal pass and if it is louder it opens the gate. A noise gate's function is in a sense the opposite to that of a compressor.

Noise gates are useful for microphones which will pick up noise which is not relevant to the program, such as the hum of a miked electric guitar amplifier or the rustling of papers on a minister's lectern. Noise gates are also used to process the microphones placed near the drums of a drum kit in many hard rock and metal bands. Without a noise gate, the microphone for a specific instrument such as the floor tom will also pick up signal from nearby drums or cymbals.

With a noise gate, the threshold of sensitivity for each microphone on the drum kit can be set so that only the direct strike and subsequent decay of the drum will be heard, not the nearby sounds. Reverberation and delay effects are widely used in sound reinforcement systems to enhance the sound of the mix and create a desired artistic effect. Reverb and delay add a sense of spaciousness to the sound, imitating the sound of a singing voice or instrument in a large, reverberant hall.

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Sound reinforcement system

A sound reinforcement system is the combination of microphones , signal processors , amplifiers , and loudspeakers in enclosures all controlled by a mixing console that makes live or pre-recorded sounds louder and may also distribute those sounds to a larger or more distant audience. A sound reinforcement system for a rock concert in a stadium may be very complex, including hundreds of microphones, complex live sound mixing and signal processing systems, tens of thousands of watts of amplifier power, and multiple loudspeaker arrays , all overseen by a team of audio engineers and technicians. On the other hand, a sound reinforcement system can be as simple as a small public address PA system, consisting of, for example, a single microphone connected to a watt amplified loudspeaker for a singer-guitarist playing in a small coffeehouse. In both cases, these systems reinforce sound to make it louder or distribute it to a wider audience.

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Слушая сообщение, он выпил почти целый пакет апельсинового сока. Послание ничем не отличалось от многих других, которые он получал: правительственное учреждение просит его поработать переводчиком в течение нескольких часов сегодня утром. Странным показалось только одно: об этой организации Беккер никогда прежде не слышал.

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