Manufactory industry reindeer and camel husbandry products
The explosion of industrial agriculture across the globe over the last century or two has made it extremely easy to acquire skins to tan. But, before technological advancements made raising livestock more feasible, leather was still being made. So, where did all of those skins come from? Well, animal husbandry has been around for thousands of years, so it makes sense that people would use the hides from animals they raised for meat, dairy, or fiber. But, even before humans were herding and raising livestock purposefully, they still had access to hides through animals they hunted.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Cute Reindeer Balloon Animal Tutorial!
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Table of Contents
Although our hunter-gatherer ancestors relied on an enormous array of animal species to fulfil their protein requirements, only a handful of these were subsequently domesticated, and cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens currently represent the main animals used for global meat production. In spite of various attempts to improve the productivity of these traditional livestock species, this sector is facing immense pressure to meet the increasing demand for animal protein from a growing human population, and the future situation will likely only be aggravated by global warming, water shortages, and land restrictions for livestock production.
Various animals, such as goats, camels, yak, and water buffalo, have accompanied man for centuries, surviving in the harshest conditions and on sparse feed resources.
Due to their outstanding adaptability, these species could become crucial for future food supply, as well as for socio—economic and environmental stability. While subsistence hunting undoubtedly threatens wildlife populations throughout the world, there are many wild animals that are abundant and even considered as pests that could play a pivotal role in improving food security. Archeological evidence, including stone tools and butchery marks on fossilized bones, suggests that early hominins adapted to an omnivorous diet more than 2.
This dietary modification appears to be linked with the evolution of the large human brain, which to function, requires a relatively greater proportion of the total energy budget than in other primates, therefore necessitating the addition of energy- and nutrient-rich meat sources Leonard et al. These meat sources are believed to have originally been scavenged from the kills of more efficient predators, until such time as hunting skills developed around , years ago.
One of the most momentous evolutionary steps for humankind came many years later through the domestication of livestock animals, beginning with sheep and goats, then progressing to pigs, cattle, horses, donkeys, water buffalo, camelids, and later chickens Magee et al. The subsequent establishment of animal husbandry techniques enabled man to generate ample and reliable sources of meat, reducing the number of species from which this was derived, but simultaneously facilitating the acceleration of human population growth that has continued unabated ever since Diamond, Compared with the estimated 10 million people on earth at the time of agriculture development ca.
The current demand for meat is at an all-time high, driven predominantly by the developing world, where increasing populations, urbanization, and greater incomes have promoted the increased inclusion of animal proteins in the diet Thornton, Meat production has consequently been forced to follow suit in almost every part of the globe Figure 1 , more than quadrupling over the last 50 years to reach million tonnes in FAOSTAT, As of , there were more than 1.
Cattle produced 63 million tonnes of meat in , sheep 8. The demand for beef and mutton has largely declined over the last few decades, mainly due to their high prices, the perceived health concerns surrounding red meat consumption, and the associated food safety concerns e.
While pig production has continued to increase, the production of poultry has shown the greatest and most rapid growth among the traditional livestock species, increasing almost fold from 9 million tonnes in Figure 2. Birds contributing to the current world poultry production include turkeys 5 million tonnes , ducks 4 million tonnes , and guinea fowls and geese ca. As with pigs, chickens have good feed conversion rates, fast growth rates, and minimal space requirements, meaning that they have been heavily utilized to supply the global demand for cheap protein Sherman, The contribution of individual countries to global meat production from selected traditional livestock species Kalverkamp et al.
Industrialization and specialization have undoubtedly facilitated these enormous meat outputs, with the objectives of some in the U. Biotechnologies such as genetic modification GM have been applied to improve the yields of certain crops used to feed both humans and animals Herrera-Estrella, Yields within the traditionally farmed livestock sector have been increased through selective breeding for desired production traits e.
Selective breeding, as well as specialized rearing techniques, have also been applied to enhance meat quality and palatability attributes. Such interventions have often generated animals with greater fat contents than their wild progenitors but favored by certain groups of contemporary consumers, such as the modern varieties of intensely marbled Japanese Wagyu beef, which is produced from placid cattle kept in confinement, fed beer, and regularly massaged Bingen and Bush, Livestock productivity has been additionally encouraged through advances in science, including the administration of hormones to stimulate growth and antibiotics to combat disease.
However, as with the application of GM technologies, there has been growing consumer resistance relating to the aforementioned interventions and the notion of intensive farming as a whole, with concerns extending from animal welfare to the pollution, carbon footprints, and water footprints associated with such systems Napolitano et al. Thus, while technological elaborations have made farmers immensely productive and have indeed transformed the face of agriculture, modern agrarian systems have concurrently disrupted finely balanced systems, contributed to environmental changes, and ultimately transformed the face of the earth.
Urbanization and biofuel production are reducing this land rapidly, and apart from additional forest clearing, which will lead to further habitat degradation and biodiversity loss, there is very little room for further expansion Steinfeld et al. In addition to land restrictions for grazing and forage production, the future supply of meat from conventional livestock species will likely be additionally impacted by climate change, water shortages, carbon emission constraints, high feed prices, and environmental and welfare legislation FAO, ; Thornton, All of these factors compound to present one of the biggest threats to food security and sustainable resource use that the human race has ever faced.
Potential meat producers have no boundaries of size or species: wild, semi-domesticated, or domesticated animals that can be used for meat consumption belong to every mammalian family and also encompass thousands of avian, reptilian, and amphibian species Smil, Many of these species have long been used by indigenous people in diverse regions of the world for food Figure 3 , as well as agricultural products and for work purposes, with some being well suited to commercial utilization in terms of their sizes, constitutions, and husbandry requirements Hoffman and Cawthorn, Examples of ruminant production, by countries and main species adapted from Kalverkamp et al.
Developed through the ages, these animals have become exceptionally well adapted to sparse vegetation, harsh terrains, and extreme climatic conditions. Yaks Bos grunniens and B. The The one-humped dromedary camels Camelus dromedarius , on the other hand, exhibit a number of remarkable anatomical and physiological features that enable them to live, work, reproduce, and yield meat and milk in the blistering hot deserts of northern Africa and eastern Asia.
For one, these large herbivores far surpass any other large animals Kadim et al. Further, their ability to store large fat deposits in their humps provides them with crucial energy in times of feed scarcity, as well as insulation from solar radiation.
In spite of the highly nutritious meat of the camel Hoffman, and their symbiotic relationship with man for thousands of years, camels have been largely neglected as economically productive animals with great potential for food production. A lack of effort in enhancing camel productivity has been one of the primary constraints in developing marketable camel meat products for worldwide supply Kadim et al.
Nonetheless, in the face of growing food insecurity, coupled with climate change and desertification, there is an urgent need to better utilize marginal and sub-marginal lands while improving and stocking such species that thrive under severe environmental conditions Lambrecht, ; Hoffman, ; Webb, The goat Capra aegagrus hircus , one of man's most enduring sources of high-quality meat and milk, holds many advantages for poorer farmers and households in the developing world: they are small and cheap to keep, are amendable to a range of climatic conditions, and their efficient feed utilization and disease tolerance allows them to flourish on many natural resources left untouched by other domestic ruminants Peters, ; Alexandre and Mandonnet, Although goats have been criticized for causing environmental degradation through overgrazing, when carefully controlled, they not only control bush encroachment, but these small ruminants also produce meat that is lean, nutritious, and acceptable under most religious convictions Hoffman et al.
Goat meat is highly prized and well accepted in many rural communities particularly at ceremonial and festive occasions ; however, factors that hinder its universal distribution and global acceptance include the problems of inconsistent supply and quality, the lack of an organized meat industry and marketing structures, as well as social stigmas surrounding the meat.
Certain consumers inevitably link goats with poverty, see the meat as inferior, and associate it with lower-income classes, issues that need to be addressed in the marketing of this commodity Mahgoub et al. While global goat meat production was officially reported at 5. Of the non-traditional animals used for food production to date, the water buffalo Bubalus bubalis ; Naveena and Kiran, represents one of the most pertinent success stories.
This large bovid, which has supported poor communities in Asia since time immemorial, has been a relatively late entrant into the global meat market, but its contribution is becoming increasingly substantial Cruz, This country, where the slaughter and consumption of cattle is a sensitive religious issue, produced more than 1. Since the meat from water buffalo has traditionally been derived from animals at the end of their working lives, there has been a public perception that it is dark and tough Cruz, Water buffalo thrive under harsh conditions, not only being resistant to disease, but also being able to draw nourishment from coarse feeds and crop residues not tolerated by cattle Kandeepan et al.
These animals thus show great potential for increasing meat production in tropical, sub-tropical, and warm temperate regions in developing and developed countries NRC, An inevitable progression in the quest to produce more protein has been to look to wild animals and to investigate if some of these too can be harvested or farmed to increase meat production.
The concept of using wild animals for food is by no means new, and their nutritional values and contributions to food security have been recognized and comprehensively reviewed Hoffman and Cawthorn, The question of whether wildlife species should be further exploited and promoted as meat sources, however, remains tremendously complex and controversial Cooper, ; Rao and McGowan, ; Milner-Gulland and Bennett, On one level, there is little doubt that subsistence hunting, much of it uncontrolled and unsustainable, has led to the catastrophic decline and even decimation of numerous wildlife populations across the globe, from elephants to primates Nasi et al.
The annual bushmeat harvest in Central Africa alone is estimated at 5 million tonnes, which is more than 6 times the sustainable rate Fa et al. A further concern is that the establishment of captive populations for wildlife farming can present a continuous drain on wild populations.
For example, the illegal capture and removal of wild Siamese crocodile Crocodylus siamensis to supply local farms has contributed to the extirpation of the species throughout much of its range Mockin et al. On another level, numerous wild game animals e. Furthermore, the bison Bison bison , which was driven to near extinction in a brief frenzy of over-hunting in the late s Galbraith et al. For instance, in parts of rural Australia, several prolific species of kangaroo have been condemned for damaging crops, degrading fragile rangelands Spiegel and Wynn, , and competing with livestock for grazing Grigg and Pople, The commercial harvesting of these species from the wild is therefore permitted in certain Australian states, albeit under strict control and quota allocations, with the dual roles of mitigating the environmental impacts of the animal and providing incomes through meat and hide production.
Kangaroo meat has a strong flavor, is high in protein, and lean ca. Over the last 2 decades, both scientists and government advisors have advocated the potential for kangaroos to replace cattle and sheep for meat production in the rangelands of Australia with the prospective advantages of, amongst others, reducing greenhouse emissions Garnaut, ; Wilson and Edwards, ; Cooney et al.
Deer too were considered pests in New Zealand following their uncontrolled introduction into the country in the late s Wiklund et al, Today, however, the farming of these cervids has become a particularly well-established and scientifically advanced industry in the country Chardonnet et al.
Some wild suid species, including the wild boar Sus scrofa found predominantly across Eurasia and the warthog Phacochoerus africanus of sub-Saharan Africa, have long been valued for food and recreational hunting, but these animals have come to be regarded as nuisances to agricultural systems and threats to ecosystems in some regions. Nonetheless, given their rapid reproductive rates, outstanding adaptability, and highly nutritious meat, interest has been raised on the potential of these animals as farmed species Zomborszky et al.
While the sustainability and future of the entire bushmeat trade is dubious, the farming or backyard production of smaller wild animals and pests can help to alleviate this uncertainty and contribute to improving food security, especially in developing countries Hardouin et al.
The meat of lagomorphs i. Both groups of animals show great promise as meat producers due to their legendary reproductive capacities short gestation periods, large litter sizes, and early sexual maturity , as well as their ability to survive on diverse diets and to reutilize their own digesta through coprophagy Vietmeyer, ; Hirakawa, The breeding of rabbits Oryctolagus cuniculus is already a thriving industry that produces more than 1.
The rodents that have been identified as having production potential in Latin America include the capybara Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris , paca Cuniculus spp. Reptiles, frogs, giant snails, and caterpillars have also been recognized as having potential for mini-livestock production. A rising wave of food insecurity threatens mankind as it becomes apparent that our ever-increasing demand for animal protein may well be at odds with the capacity of the planet to supply it.
While meat eating is inevitability here to stay, the uncertainty lies in whether just a handful of species will be capable of feeding the growing human population and securing its income in the long term. The need to realize the potential of alternative meat producers is thus substantial. A large number of prospective non-traditional meat producers have been introduced in this paper, and while it is not anticipated that these will solve the global food shortages in their entirety, they may well aid in decreasing the extent of current and future food shortages.
Although a positive shift towards rearing non-traditional animal species has recently occurred among meat producers worldwide, there is still a gross under-valuation of their meat. This is partly due to old prejudices and the erroneous perception that this meat is of an inferior quality or nutritive value than that of traditional meat species.
Indeed, the time for altering these misconceptions is ripe. The conditions for increasing the contribution of non-traditional species to global meat supply could be met, but such progress will likely only become possible with increased emphasis, research, and development of these sectors, with increased productivity, with a supply of meat products that are of a consistent quality and safety, with an efficient market and marketing channels, and with better communication on the quality and nutritive properties of the meat.
Louw Hoffman was born on a cattle and pig ranch in Zimbabwe. He studied animal sciences at Stellenbosch University. After completing his M. While there, he completed his Ph. Thereafter, he was employed as an academic and researcher at Stellenbosch University in the meat science discipline. Hoffman has published more than scientific peer-reviewed research articles in national and international journals, and 65 M.
His special research interest is in exotic meat game and ostrich. Last year , his research on game meat and its contribution to International knowledge was recognized internationally when the American Meat Science Association awarded him its International Lectureship Award.
This Chair allows him to focus primarily on research, and presently, he has 44 post-graduate students under his mentorship. He describes himself as a frustrated farmer who has no farm and is therefore an academic and researcher. Donna Cawthorn obtained her B. Her interest in meat science led her to join the Department of Animal Sciences Stellenbosch University as a post-doctoral fellow in , where she still works. Her current foci are on animal forensics and DNA-based species authentication.
She has a particular passion for conservation and sustainability issues, and thus much of the latter work is directed towards the fisheries and the illegal bushmeat trade.
KAHE China Yunnan , China Animal Husbandry and Feed Industry Expo, dedicated to the global best kind of livestock and poultry, aquaculture equipment, feed, veterinary drugs, dynamic security, environmental protection exhibition site, introduced the whole industrial chain related products, designed to build based on southwest cloud, Guizhou, Sichuan, Chongqing , docking the animal feed industry of southeast Asia. In the context of a series of preferential policies launched by the state to expand pig production and stabilize pig supply, the " southwest pig industry resumption conference" was held. For the southwest animal husbandry, aquaculture, feed industry to provide a collection of products, technology, information, capital, talent, resources as one of the exchange platform.
But you would be wrong. The camels grazing on this green patch of farmland a few miles outside of Den Bosch may look happy enough. But milking them is another story; moody camels are known to spit and kick, and mares will give milk only when one of their offspring is nearby. Since starting his farm in , he has run afoul of animal rights advocates and the Dutch agricultural authorities, as well as the European Union , which forbids the importation of camels.
China Animal Husbandry and Feed Industry Expo
Increased modernisation in the desert state such as roads and tractors has reduced the economic importance of camels. Camels were their prized assets. They provided mobility in the desert; were good draught animals; could survive continuous spells of hot and arid conditions; and, during drought and famine when other livestock perished, they offered nutritious milk. In fact, the Raikas recall that in , when large parts of Rajasthan was hit by a famine, people survived just by drinking camel milk. One of the rules that used to be followed by the community was never to sell camel milk. They believed this milk, just like their children, was a gift of god, and while it could be shared, it could not be commodified. But this has changed now. The community is demanding the state government to promote procurement and marketing of camel milk. From a million camels in India in , it has dipped to below 0. Take for instance, Anji Ki Dhani, a village in Pali district of Rajasthan, where almost all the households belong to the Raika community.
The Camel as Cow, a Cautionary Tale
Although our hunter-gatherer ancestors relied on an enormous array of animal species to fulfil their protein requirements, only a handful of these were subsequently domesticated, and cattle, sheep, pigs, and chickens currently represent the main animals used for global meat production. In spite of various attempts to improve the productivity of these traditional livestock species, this sector is facing immense pressure to meet the increasing demand for animal protein from a growing human population, and the future situation will likely only be aggravated by global warming, water shortages, and land restrictions for livestock production. Various animals, such as goats, camels, yak, and water buffalo, have accompanied man for centuries, surviving in the harshest conditions and on sparse feed resources. Due to their outstanding adaptability, these species could become crucial for future food supply, as well as for socio—economic and environmental stability.
World milk production is almost entirely derived from cattle, buffaloes, goats, sheep and camels. Other less common milk animals are yaks, horses, reindeers and donkeys. The presence and importance of each species varies significantly among regions and countries.
Can monetising camel products revive Rajasthan’s state animal?
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Table of Contents
Humans keep domesticated animals because they provide something of value. Important but frequently overlooked contributions include draft power, manure, fibers, hides and other by-products. Diets based on meat, eggs and dairy products contain proteins, carbohydrates, fats, minerals and vitamins present in appropriate amounts and readily digestible forms to meet all human nutritional requirements. In the past, animal protein was considered essential in human diets but recent knowledge suggests that this is not absolutely true. A highly diversified vegetarian diet can also provide all necessities but these may be obtained more readily through consumption of some animal products. It must be conceded, however, that most people enjoy eating meat and dairy products and do so by choice rather than through absolute necessity. Developed countries have about one-third of the world's livestock but these produce somewhere between two-thirds and three-quarters of all products that pass through organized markets.
Animal husbandry is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised for meat , fibre , milk , eggs , or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock. Husbandry has a long history, starting with the Neolithic revolution when animals were first domesticated , from around 13, BC onwards, antedating farming of the first crops. By the time of early civilisations such as ancient Egypt , cattle , sheep , goats and pigs were being raised on farms. Major changes took place in the Columbian Exchange when Old World livestock were brought to the New World, and then in the British Agricultural Revolution of the 18th century, when livestock breeds like the Dishley Longhorn cattle and Lincoln Longwool sheep were rapidly improved by agriculturalists such as Robert Bakewell to yield more meat, milk, and wool.
Stronger measures are in place at our borders to stop African swine fever from entering Australia. Have your say now. The livestock species that Australia exports for slaughter and breeding are cattle, sheep, goats, buffalo, deer, and camelids such as camels and alpacas.
The polar bears Kolymana and Lomonosov living in the Yakut zoo "Orto Doydu" became parents for the second time - on December 15th baby bear was born. His gender will be determined only in the spring, and then he will be given a name. The baby has not yet opened his eyes and will fully get stronger only in the spring, then they and the mother bear will leave the den. The first guests in a bear family were the chairman of the government of the Sakha Republic Yakutia , Vladimir Solodov, and the Minister of Ecology, Sakhamin Afanasiev, to whom the zoo staff showed video footage of a polar bear with a cub.
Она пыталась не думать о Дэвиде, но безуспешно. С каждым завыванием сирены слова Хейла эхом отдавались в ее мозгу: Я сожалею о Дэвиде Беккере.
Ja. Дверь слегка приоткрылась, и на него уставилось круглое немецкое лицо. Дэвид приветливо улыбнулся. Он не знал, как зовут этого человека. - Deutscher, ja.
Стратмор оторвался от перил и переложил пистолет в правую руку. Не произнеся ни слова, он шагнул в темноту, Сьюзан изо всех сил держалась за его плечо. Если она потеряет с ним контакт, ей придется его позвать, и тогда Хейл может их услышать. Удаляясь от таких надежных ступенек, Сьюзан вспомнила, как в детстве играла в салки поздно ночью, и почувствовала себя одинокой и беззащитной, ТРАНСТЕКСТ был единственным островом в открытом черном море.
Через каждые несколько шагов Стратмор останавливался, держа пистолет наготове, и прислушивался. Единственным звуком, достигавшим его ушей, был едва уловимый гул, шедший снизу. Сьюзан хотелось потянуть шефа назад, в безопасность его кабинета.
Сьюзан поняла, в чем дело: все это время Хейл вел себя тихо, подозрительно тихо, поскольку отлично знал, что нет такой диагностики, в которой использовалась бы цепная мутация, тем более такая, которая занимала ТРАНСТЕКСТ уже восемнадцать часов.
Хейл не проронил ни слова. Казалось, вспыхнувшая на его глазах перепалка абсолютно его не касается. Очевидно, Стратмор вдруг задумался: .