Plant building information carriers
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- Slings & Carriers
- Options and Evaluations on Propulsion Systems of LNG Carriers
- Existing Contractors, Suppliers and Carriers
- Lng Plant Design
- The Last Shift: What Really Happened To Those Carrier Jobs Trump Saved
- Mining Crawler Construction
- Studies and construction supervision for a new fiduciary center
- Where Are Carrier Heating and Cooling Systems Manufactured?
- Understanding The Design of Liquefied Gas Carriers
Slings & Carriers
The LNG carriers are undergoing a period of rapid and profound change, with much larger size ships and novel propulsion systems emerging for fulfilling the market trends of LNG shipping industry. In this context, this chapter investigated the main characteristics of these propulsion options in terms of BOG treatment, fuel consumption, emission standards compliance, and plant reliability. Furthermore, comparisons among different propulsion system were also carried out and related evaluation was presented.
Propulsion Systems. The LNG shipping industry had been tremendously cautious in choosing the propulsion system, and the steam turbine had been practically an exclusive option for LNG carriers over the last several decades. Influencing factors including economic consideration, environmental regulation, as well as safety issues made a profound impact on the technology developments implemented on LNG carrier propulsion systems. Since many LNG carrier projects with propulsion other than steam turbine have been under construction, such as dual-fuel diesel electric propulsion and two-stroke diesel engine propulsion with reliquefaction plant.
Steam turbine domination in the LNG carrier sector has been gradually broken. So far there is no standard propulsion system that applicable to all types of LNG carriers [ 1 , 2 ]. The development history of the propulsion system for LNG carriers is presented in Figure 1. Steam turbine has been the dominating propulsion plant used on LNG carriers since Because it offers dual fuel burning capability, low maintenance cost and high reliability.
However, in order to improve operational efficiency, reduce engine room size and increase cargo capacity, a number of alternative propulsion options have been developed in the industry. In , the four-stroke dual fuel engine broke the domination of the steam turbine and started to be used on LNG carriers as a part of dual fuel diesel electric propulsion system.
After , two-stroke dual fuel technology has made a breakthrough and has been applied to LNG carriers, including both the high pressure and low pressure gas injection concept. The two-stroke dual fuel engines can offer substantial efficiency advantages over both the DFDE and steam turbines.
So they become a popular propulsion system choice for LNG carriers. The driving factors for the development of the propulsion system come from the following three aspects [ 3 ]: Change of trade pattern.
Traditionally, LNG was almost exclusively traded under inflexible long-term contracts and the vessels are operating on fixed sailing routes. However, the proportion of short-term contracts and even spot cargoes has increased substantially since So this change requires a more flexible and efficient propulsion system to accommodate various operating profiles.
Upgrading of emission regulation. In order to comply with the stricter regulation, the propulsion plant has to improve its emission performance and fuel efficiency. Improvement on insulation technology. The boil off rate is significantly reduced due to the improvement in LNG tank insulation. This results in the insufficient BOG to fuel the propulsion plant and leads to the development of alternative more fuel efficient propulsion systems.
After an exhaustive review of works related to propulsion systems of LNG carriers, an extensive variety of systems installed on board has been found, ranging from turbines to internal combustion engines with endless variants. Therefore, the purpose of this chapter is to investigate the various LNG carrier propulsion systems, taking into account the latest technology progress and innovation in this field. The size of an LNG carrier is based on its obtainable volumetric capacity of liquid natural gas in m 3.
Thus, the LNG carriers to and from Qatar ordered over the last few years are of the large sizes of approx. The LNG carrier classes often used today can therefore be referred to as listed in Table 1. The traditional LNG trade mode is based on long term shipping contracts and dedicated fleets of ships sailing on the fixed routes and schedules between LNG terminals in the world.
The LNG supply chain does not have much buffering capacity and it is very important that the cargo is delivered on time. However, due to the increasing demand and supply of LNG the number of short-term contracts and even spot trade has increased significantly.
From the shipping point of view this means that the operators are bound to look for ships with more operational flexibility and efficiency in response to varying contractual situations. Primarily this calls for a flexible and efficient propulsion plant able to accommodate different ship speeds and alternative operating profiles [ 3 ]. LNG carriers are designed to carry natural gas in liquid form at a temperature below its boiling temperature point.
Despite tank insulation designed to limit the admission of external heat, even a small amount of it will cause slight evaporation of the cargo, known as boil-off gas BOG. Typical values are 0. The BOG result from natural evaporation is unavoidable and has to be removed from the tanks in order to maintain the cargo tank pressure. Reliquefaction occurs when evaporated LNG is cooled and reverted back to its liquid state. Excess gas can also be led to the engines which have a capability of burning gas fuel.
Another alternative is to burn the unwanted gas in a combustion unit, but this results in wastage of materials and valuable energy. Categorization of containment systems for LNG carriers is shown in Figure 2. The IGC code categorizes cargo tanks into two main types: integral tanks and independent tanks.
In addition, the integral tanks are mainly of membrane type and the independent tanks can be further classified into three subcategories, which are referred to as Type A, Type B and Type C.
On large-scale carriers, type B and membrane tanks are mainly used. This is most likely because prismatic membrane tanks utilize the hull shape more efficiently, and thus have less void space between the cargo tanks and ballast tanks. However, self-supporting type B tanks are more robust and have greater resistance to sloshing forces. The safety requirements for the propulsion system are specified by the international code and classification rules and the regulatory framework is constantly improving along with the development of the propulsion system.
Since the dual fuel engines are extensively used on LNG carriers, the revised IGC code has included the gas-fuelled engines. Classifications also issued dedicated rules or guidelines for propulsion system applied on LNG carriers. There are various proposed propulsion systems being used and considered by the industry. From the categorization of propulsion systems for LNG carriers as shown in Figure 3 , we can see that the prime movers include steam turbine, gas turbine, diesel engine, dual fuel engine.
Based on the prime movers and their combinations, we have six propulsion system options, including steam turbine propulsion, dual fuel diesel electric propulsion, slow speed dual fuel engine propulsion, gas turbine propulsion, slow speed diesel engine propulsion with re-liquefaction plant, and hybrid propulsion system based on steam turbine and gas engine.
Figure 4 shows a simplified schematic of a typical steam propulsion system. The steam is also used to feed turbo generators which provide electric power for auxiliary services e. Two turbo generators are installed to guarantee the redundancy, and each one has a power capacity capable of covering the peak load demand which is normally during full rate cargo discharge.
Two auxiliary diesel engines are installed as well, with a combined capacity equal to one of the turbo generator sets, as a safety requirement to supply sufficient power during black outs.
The excessive BOG generated in situations when the steam turbine is out of service or at low load is also burned in the boilers, and the steam generated is dumped in the condenser to dissipate the energy to the sea. Through this simple philosophy it is able to stabilize the tank pressure, eliminating the need for a gas combustion unit GCU.
In addition, the steam turbine propulsion is also featured with ease of use, intrinsic reliability, and reduced maintenance costs. The DFDE configuration provides a more straightforward and simple layout of the propulsion system.
The DFDE propulsion system employs multiple engines of the same type, typically four or five, coupled to electrical generators to supply energy to the entire ship including propulsion, which is driven by means of electric motors [ 10 ].
Duel fuel engines have different operation modes depending on the fuel to be used. When gas is burned as fuel gas mode , the engine adopts the concept of the lean Otto cycle.
In Gas Mode, the BOG is injected to the air intake before each cylinder individually through a gas admission valve, where it is mixed with the charged air before entry to the combustion chamber. A small amount approx. In diesel mode, the DF-engine works resemble any diesel engine, utilizing traditional jerk pump fuel injection system. Switching between the two operating modes can be conducted stably without interruption in power supply. Gas mode and diesel mode follow the different operating principles, and as a result they have different operating features.
The diesel mode performances better in terms of thermal efficiency and dynamic response, while the Gas mode has advantages in terms of fuel cost and exhaust emissions. The combustion control system is an important issue that must be taken into account in DF engines.
In gas mode following Otto cycle, as the engine load increased along with the mean effective pressure, the operating window between misfiring and knocking becomes narrower. To stay within the operating window and have optimal performance for all cylinders regarding safety, efficiency and emissions in all conditions, it requires a system to control the combustion process each cylinder individually and precisely.
The number of engines and configuration of cylinder are selected so as to provide as near optimal loading as possible for the engines required to be operated during the various working conditions of the vessel. With a multi-engine configuration, the DFDE propulsion system provides a superior performance in terms of redundancy and safety. In the DFDE concept, since the power demand for propulsion and cargo handling are in different operating time phase the installed power of the ship can be considerably reduced compared with other mechanical propulsion system, which is a notable advantage.
The drawback of this propulsion system is the high investment and maintenance costs, resulting from the dual fuel engines and the increased amount of equipment comprised in the electric propulsion system. Two-stroke slow speed diesel engines are predominant propulsion plant in merchant shipping, which is benefit from its high efficiency, capability of burning low-quality low cost fuels, and low maintenance costs. Since the two-stroke slow speed engine is a single fuelled HFO propulsion plant without a BOG burning capability, the natural BOG from cargo tanks shall be liquefied and sent back to cargo tanks.
In this context, the two-stroke slow speed diesel engines with re-liquefaction plant turn into a feasible and attractive option for the ship owners. For this kind of propulsion concept, the abbreviation SSDR is typically used for reference.
The schematic main machinery of a two-stroke diesel engine powered LNG carrier with re-liquefaction plant is illustrated in Figure 6. The re-liquefaction plant is used for re-liquefying the BOG generated in cargo tanks and returning it to into a liquid state, maintaining a proper pressure in cargo tanks, and moreover avoiding any wastage of the LNG being transported.
Besides, a GCU is also equipped to burn the BOG generated which, in case of re-liquefaction plant failures, would be impossible to treat, avoiding the pressure increase in the tanks and could cause great damage. The BOG re-liquefaction principal is based on a closed cycle using nitrogen as a refrigerant, absorbing the heat from BOG. This ensures condensation of all hydrocarbons in the BOG so they can be converted back to LNG, while the nitrogen and other non-condensable remain at gaseous state.
These gas impurities are finally removed in a gas-liquid separator where the LNG is separated and delivered back to the cargo tanks with the nitrogen-rich non-condensable gases either discharged to the atmosphere or burnt in the GCU. The operation of a re-liquefaction plant requires a high electric power supply by auxiliary generators composed of either 3 or 4 power generators. Considering the overall performance of the system, the tremendous power consumption of the re-liquefaction plant substantially diminishes the efficiency advantages provided by the two-stroke slow speed diesel engines.
In December , the slow speed two-stroke dual fuel engines received the first orders for a pair of gas fuelled container vessels, marked the beginning of the two-stroke dual-fuel power train era. Dual fuel engines of two-stroke low-speed types offer major propulsive efficiency advantages over both the DFDE and steam turbines, the most popular propulsion system options during the early stages of development for LNG carriers.
Distinct technical routes have been adopted by the two main manufacturers. In recent years, the WinGD low pressure X-DF two-stroke engines have also undergone substantial development and application [ 11 ].
Figure 7 shows the schematic main machinery of a ME-GI propulsion plant. The ME-GI high pressure gas engines operate on the diesel cycle. It is claimed that this concept would have significant advantages compared with the premixed Otto cycle gas process, i. This concept makes it possible to utilize high compression ratio designs, thereby offering higher energy efficiency.
Options and Evaluations on Propulsion Systems of LNG Carriers
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Existing Contractors, Suppliers and Carriers
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Lng Plant Design
Lng Plant Design. The heat of evaporation cools the boats holds. This process makes it possible to transport natural gas to places pipelines do not reach. ConocoPhillips is committed to being a global leader in LNG technology.
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The Last Shift: What Really Happened To Those Carrier Jobs Trump Saved
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In our previous article we described design of different types of tankers. Ships that are designed to carry liquefied gas have become more significant and increased in number in the recent years, with the increasing need for alternative fuel. To understand the design characteristics of these two types of ships, we first need to know a few notable details about the composition and properties of LPG and LNG. Petroleum hydrocarbon products such as Propane and Butane, and mixtures of both have been categorised by the oil industry as LPG. It is widely used in domestic and industrial purposes today.
To keep pace with market-dictated demands, machine builders and plant engineers require a needs-based solution:. The Multi-Carrier-System is designed precisely to meet these market requirements. It offers needs-oriented scalable engineering tools, as well as modular hardware components.
Mining Crawler Construction
High-resolution satellite images show that the construction of China 's first full-sized aircraft carrier is progressing steadily in what has been billed as the country's future 'warship factory'. The vessel will be Beijing's third aircraft carrier which is expected to be launched in Also captured by the pictures are expansive infrastructure work that suggests the ship will be the first of several large vessels produced at the site by the Yangtze River, according to analysts.
Studies and construction supervision for a new fiduciary center
Since the s, almost all U. To make the construction process more efficient, most of each supercarrier is assembled in separate modular pieces called superlifts. A supercarrier is made up of almost separate superlifts. Before placing a superlift module into the ship, the construction crew assembles its steel body and hooks up almost all wiring and plumbing.
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Where Are Carrier Heating and Cooling Systems Manufactured?
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Understanding The Design of Liquefied Gas Carriers
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