Units manufacturing finished cotton fabrics and piece goods
The textile, textile product, and apparel manufacturing industries include establishments that process fiber into fabric and fabric into clothing and other textile products. While most apparel manufacturers worldwide rely on people to cut and sew pieces of fabric together, U. Because the apparel industry has moved mainly to other countries with cheaper labor costs, that which remains in the United States must be extremely labor efficient to compete effectively with foreign manufacturers. Goods and services. The establishments in these industries produce a variety of goods, some of which are sold to the consumer, while others are sold as inputs to the manufacture of other products.
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Dyeing and printing
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources.
More detail can be found at the end of the book. The following pages represent an attempt to compile, primarily for the benefit of members of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, descriptions of cotton, woollen, and other fabrics, their weaves and finishes, etc. This manual does not embrace all textiles known to the trade, but it does cover all those enumerated in the "Revised Import Tariff for the Trade of China," as well as many others.
As far as possible the commonly accepted trade name has been used. It should, however, be borne in mind that many fabrics are known in the trade by a variety of names, so that one branch of the trade may not recognise a name applied to the same fabric by another branch.
The descriptions have been built up from information obtained first hand from practical weavers, manufacturers, wholesale and retail merchants, buyers, etc. To Mr. Shaw, of Botham Hall, Huddersfield, I am indebted for introductions to the principal manufacturers in that district, enabling me to go through such mills as those of Mr.
Whitwam and Messrs. Godfrey Sykes, where every phase of manufacture from raw material to finished goods was shown and explained with characteristic Yorkshire thoroughness. I am indebted for either information or actual samples, or both, to:—. The following works have been consulted, and their contents have materially assisted me.
I take the opportunity of acknowledging my indebtedness to their authors, as well as to those of any other works consulted but which may have been omitted from this list:—.
House of Representatives Document No. I wish specially to acknowledge my indebtedness to Mr. Sutton, Piece Goods Expert to the Board of Trade, London, for having perused the manuscript of the "Piece Goods Manual" and for the painstaking manner in which he pointed out where modifications were advisable. His suggestions have enabled me to revise definitions so as to make them agree with accepted trade interpretations. Plain Weave Figure 1. Three-end Twill Weave " 2. Four-end Twill Weave " 3.
Four-end Weft Twill Weave " 4. Two-and-two Twill Weave " 5. Irregular Twill Weave " 6. Five-end Warp Sateen Weave " 7. Five-end Weft Sateen Weave " 8. Simple Plain Gauze Weave " 9. Weft-pile Weave " Figure 1. Weft threads. Warp threads. Figure 1 shows the simplest manner of interlacing warp and weft threads. This style of weave is called plain, calico, or "one-over and one-under" weave. Figure 2. This figure illustrates the interlacing of warp shaded and weft white threads, so as to produce a regular "three-end twill" weave.
It also shows the direction of twill. In this figure the warp threads are shown interlaced with the weft threads in three distinct positions. There is a distinct predominance of warp threads thrown to the surface by this style of interlacing, and a fabric woven on this system would be "warp-faced. Figure 3. This figure illustrates a four-end, three-warp and one-weft, regular twill, also known as a Florentine twill, or a "three-up and one-down twill.
The warp shaded predominates, and for this reason a cloth woven on this system of interlacing would be termed "warp-faced," or warp twill. Figure 4. This figure, in which the weft threads predominate on the surface, illustrates a four-end, one-warp and three-weft, regular weft twill, in which three-quarters of the weft threads are thrown to the surface and the remaining quarter is warp.
It is the reverse of Figure 3. Figure 5. This figure illustrates a four-end, two-warp and two-weft, regular twill. Neither warp nor weft predominates on the surface. This style of twill is known as Harvard twill. Figure 6. This figure illustrates a broken or irregular twill, also known as a broken Harvard or Stockinette weave. Figure 7. This figure illustrates the method of interlacing warp shaded and weft threads so as to produce a five-end warp sateen, or satin twill.
This weave, in which the warp predominates on the surface, is reversed in Figure 8. Figure 8. This figure illustrates a five-end weft sateen. Sateen weaves are virtually a form of broken or rearranged twill.
The weft sateen weave, represented by this figure, shows weft predominating on the face: it is practically the reverse of the weave shown by Figure 7. Figure 9. In this figure A are threads known as crossing threads and are typical of gauze weave; they are binding threads holding B weft threads and C warp threads firmly together.
It will be noticed that B and C do not interlace to form a plain weave. If crossing threads A were removed, no fabric would remain. These crossing threads in this figure are shown as always passing over the weft threads B and always under the warp threads C.
This style of weave, when combined with a few "plain-weave" picks, produces Leno. Figure In this figure A is a weft-pile pick or flushing thread; B is a backing or ground cloth pick; the dots show cross section of warp threads. It will be seen that the ground picks B, together with the warp threads shown cut through , form the foundation fabric. Pile thread A is shown bound into the fabric by the second, eighth, and fourteenth warp thread. Pile threads are cut after leaving the loom at a point indicated by the arrows; the pile produced is then sheared level and suitably finished.
When the name is applied to a cotton fabric it is used to designate a plain-woven all-cotton fabric, soft, fine, and free from ornamentations, made in imitation of the worsted fabric of the same name. It has a fleecy surface, is generally sold in white, black, or solid colours, being used instead of Bunting for flags.
Not often used for printing, for which purpose it is not well adapted. Alhambra Quilt. A loosely woven coloured warp yarn is used for the figuring and a grey "sticking" warp for securing the weft in position. The fabric is classed as a lustre fabric, this being due to the predominance of the lustrous weft.
Generally plain woven with a simple one-over and one-under weave, Alpaca is, when solid coloured, a cross-dyed fabric, i. Alpaca Wool is the fleece of the Peruvian sheep, which is a species of llama. The staple is of good length and soft, but is not quite as lustrous as mohair. The natural colours are white, black, brown, and fawn.
The name, however, appears in the Revised Import Tariff for the trade of China, from which it would appear to be an all-cotton fabric, piece-dyed after leaving the loom, probably averaging between 28 and 31 inches in width and about 25 yards in length. The name is probably of South American origin. American Sheetings. Another name for this material is Cabot. Average width, 36 inches; length, 40 yards per piece. Weight varies. The use of the name Sheeting, as applied to this class of material, is now firmly established but incorrect, Sheetings originally being a two-and-two twill fabric having a width of as much as inches.
The proportion of wool to cotton varies. This scribbled wool and cotton yarn, or Angola Wool as it is called, generally contains about 20 per cent. Angola Yarn or Wool. It enters into the manufacture of very high-grade fabrics in combination with silk. More lustrous than wool, it has not, however, the warmth-retaining properties of the latter.
Angora Goat. From the long silky hair of this goat was made Turkish Yarn or Camel Yarn. The name Camel Yarn has led to mistakes; it has no reference to the camel, but is derived from the Arabic word chamal , fine. Animalised Cotton. Artificial Silk. Artificial silk is often used in the ornamentation of figured fabrics. It bears a very deceptive resemblance to true silk, but the individual fibres are coarser and burn very quickly, without the typical smell of true silk and without the hard bubble of ash.
Its value is about a third of that of the best silk, but as an offset to this must be taken its higher specific gravity.
Textile, Textile Product, and Apparel Manufacturing Industries
Dyeing and printing are processes employed in the conversion of raw textile fibres into finished goods that add much to the appearance of textile fabrics. Most forms of textile materials can be dyed at almost any stage. Quality woollen goods are frequently dyed in the form of loose fibre , but top dyeing or cheese dyeing is favoured in treating worsteds.
Antex Knitting Mills is a vertical knitting, dyeing, printing and finishing company established in Los Angeles in The company produces approximately 1. Its traditional business is to provide fashionable knitted fabrics to the junior, contemporary, and children's markets. The Antex knitting department consists of high-speed, multi-feed, state-of-the-art machines.
Home Textile Companies
See, which brands obtain and sell their products. Imagine you could identify manufacturers based on their proven specialization and their former customers. Learn how to find your most suitable manufacturers for textile within minutes! This list is based on verified inside information about suppliers worldwide and can not be falsified. The largest one is Wadding; other articles thereof, of cotton Hove over the chart to see the other ones:. Top Textile Manufacturing Companies [List]. Find reliable textile manufacturers based on verified information. Top Products. Top Clients.
PIECE GOODS MANUAL.
Brand owner and brand 26 x 1 25 All This amendment shall become effec. A statement of the considerations. Volved in the issuance of this supplemen. F R Doc Filed Nov 13
The textile industry is primarily concerned with the design, production and distribution of yarn , cloth and clothing. The raw material may be natural, or synthetic using products of the chemical industry. It's outputs are- Denim ,cotton cloth etc. Cotton is the world's most important natural fibre.
Technical specifications. Specialty Textile Services is — and will always remain — exclusively devoted to serving the needs of world-class restaurants and resorts. Subscribe to our textile mail art project THEME: Artists from around the world are invited to submit a piece of original artwork based upon the theme of textiles.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: How Cotton is Processed in Factories - How It’s Made
Textile manufacturing is a major industry. It is based on the conversion of fibre into yarn , yarn into fabric. These are then dyed or printed, fabricated into clothes. Different types of fibres are used to produce yarn. Cotton remains the most important natural fibre, so is treated in depth.
There are three basic steps required for fabric production. The first step in creating fabric is yarn production. Here, the raw materials that have been harvested and processed are transformed from raw fibers into yarn and threads. This is done by spinning the fibers. Spinning can be done by hand, but this process is quite tedious and time consuming. These days, the vast majority of spinning is done by spinning wheel. The fibers are drawn across the wheel, and as it spins, the fibers are collected on a cylindrical object called a bobbin. The bobbin holds the spun fibers, which are now connected into a long strand of thread or yarn.
The cover image was created by the transcriber and is placed in the public domain. Obvious typographical errors and punctuation errors have been corrected after careful comparison with other occurrences within the text and consultation of external sources. More detail can be found at the end of the book. The following pages represent an attempt to compile, primarily for the benefit of members of the Chinese Maritime Customs Service, descriptions of cotton, woollen, and other fabrics, their weaves and finishes, etc.
PIECE GOODS MANUAL.
Consumption is measured by the amount of raw cotton fibre purchased and used to manufacture textile materials. Worldwide cotton production is annually about 80 to 90 million bales The rest is produced by about 75 other countries. Raw cotton is exported from about 57 countries and cotton textiles from about 65 countries.
How is fabric created?
Representatives of some 20 leading textile-producing countries, meeting at Washington, April 2, for the first World Textile Conference, will seek to lay the basis for future stabilization of the textile industry through international agreements for regulation of labor conditions. While the conference, which is sponsored by the International Labor Organization, will not itself have power to propose labor treaties to governments, it is expected to recommend adoption by the International Labor Conference at Geneva in June of a draft convention for a hour week in the world textile industry. Regulation of working hours in textile mills throughout the world will be urged at the Washington conference by the Committee for Industrial Organization.
Сейчас ему пришлось это сделать.
Беккер чувствовал, как ее глаза буквально впиваются в. Он решил сменить тактику: - Я из специальной группы, занимающейся туристами. Отдайте кольцо, или мне придется отвести вас в участок и… - И что? - спросила она, подняв брови в притворном ужасе. Беккер замолчал. Он опять перегнул палку.
Если он примет на работу калеку, его компания потеряет лицо. Он выкинул его автобиографию в мусорную корзину, даже не прочитав. Нуматака в очередной раз посмотрел на часы. Американец по кличке Северная Дакота должен был бы уже позвонить. Нуматака начал слегка нервничать. Он очень надеялся, что ничего не сорвалось. Если ключ так хорош, как о нем говорят, он взломает самый совершенный продукт компьютерной эры - абсолютно стойкий алгоритм цифрового кодирования.
Он сам считает как фокусник. Она знала, что он перемножает цифры и намертво запоминает словари, не хуже ксерокса.
- Таблица умножения, - сказал Беккер. При чем здесь таблица умножения? - подумала Сьюзан.