Fabrication research and referee-information sports instruments and devices
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Wearable sensors for monitoring the physiological and biochemical profile of the athlete
A Nature Research Journal. Athletes are continually seeking new technologies and therapies to gain a competitive edge to maximize their health and performance. Athletes have gravitated toward the use of wearable sensors to monitor their training and recovery. Wearable technologies currently utilized by sports teams monitor both the internal and external workload of athletes.
However, there remains an unmet medical need by the sports community to gain further insight into the internal workload of the athlete to tailor recovery protocols to each athlete.
The ability to monitor biomarkers from saliva or sweat in a noninvasive and continuous manner remain the next technological gap for sports medical personnel to tailor hydration and recovery protocols per the athlete. The emergence of flexible and stretchable electronics coupled with the ability to quantify biochemical analytes and physiological parameters have enabled the detection of key markers indicative of performance and stress, as reviewed in this paper.
Biomedical sensors present an exciting opportunity to measure human physiologic parameters in a continuous, real-time, and nonintrusive manner by leveraging semiconductor and flexible electronics packaging technology.
The development of electrochemical transducers has been especially promising due to their low cost, simplicity, and portability. The emergence of wearable biosensors to measure analytes from eccrine sweat to assess the performance and mental acuity of the athlete serve as next steps to assessing human performance. This review discusses the application of wearable sensors to measure analytes from saliva and eccrine sweat affecting athlete performance and the use of such devices to assess the mental acuity and stress of the athlete based on heart rate variability HRV , galvanic skin response, and biomarkers measured from eccrine sweat.
The discussions in this paper highlight advancements in scientific literature and provide insight into the commercial landscape of this growing field Tables 1 and 2.
Sports teams are continuously searching for opportunities to improve the performance and safety of their athletes to gain a competitive advantage on the field. Over the last decade, time-motion analysis systems such as video recording and computer digitization have been utilized to measure human locomotion and improve sports performance.
While these techniques were once state of the art, they were faced with questionable validity of the acquired data, labor-intensive nature of collecting data, manual hand-notation techniques, and the inability to track key metrics such as biosignals, physiological parameters, and biochemicals, all of which provide real-time data pertinent to the health and performance of the athlete. Recent advancements in wearable sensor technology from a device to systems standpoint have provided new avenues to change this paradigm and are currently being implemented by teams worldwide.
While beyond the scope of this review, one issue plaguing the wearables field is the translation of the data to create actionable insight in its respective clinical domain. For example, data pertinent to player movement from wearable devices has been used to inform coaches of their players workout load to indicate which players are at a higher risk to suffer a soft-tissue injury or those that should be sidelined to prevent the occurrence or reoccurrence of an injury during high acuity training periods.
The use of wearable sensors for sports is at its infancy, with the majority of devices currently used to measure movement-based parameters such as distance, velocity, and acceleration. Electrochemical wearable sensors have received considerable attention recently because of their potential to monitor a wide array of biomarkers in a continuous and non-invasive manner. However, such devices, do not permit team trainers and physicians to quantify the biochemical profile of an athlete in a real-time manner with the goal of alleviating soft-tissue injuries, dehydration, or cramping.
Proper hydration is key to success as under-drinking can lead to hypohydration and over-drinking can lead to hyponatremia low-serum sodium concentration. In this section, we review such wearable devices and discuss their utility as it relates to sports medicine. Saliva is considered an attractive and emerging option compared to direct blood analysis for quantifying biomarkers related to human performance due to its noninvasive nature and continuous supply 11 Table 3.
In addition, biomarkers detected in saliva such as alpha-amylase, glucose, lactate, phosphate, and uric acid UA have been shown to have a good correlation with that found in blood 12 Table 4. Initial work pertaining to electrochemical salivary sensors was conducted by Graf in the s to measure pH and fluoride ion levels on a partial denture.
Kim et al. The second layer, comprised of the working and auxiliary electrodes, was printed from a Prussian blue-graphite ink. Lactate oxidase LOx was coated on the working electrode surface by electropolymeric entrapment in a poly o-phenylenediamine film. The third layer was printed by using a dielectric paste and served as the insulator layer.
The three printed electrodes were attached to the mouthguard body via a double-sided adhesive. Data from chronoamperograms for increasing concentrations of lactate in phosphate-buffered saline medium showed that the biosensor displayed a very high sensitivity toward lactate, with current-signals proportional to the lactate concentration.
The chronoamperometric response of lactate in the presence and absence of physiological concentrations of ascorbic acid and UA showed that these potential interferences had a negligible effect upon the lactate response and that the biosensor system provided high selectivity to measure lactate in a noninvasive manner. Sensor stability was tested over a 2-h period with measurements of 0.
Results from the corresponding chronoamperogram demonstrated a highly stable response over a 2-h duration. Furthermore, the biosensor tested favorably to measuring lactate levels in unstimulated human saliva with good linearity and a correlation coefficient of 0. In addition, the biosensor demonstrated stability over a similar 2-h period when treated with unspiked human saliva Fig.
In another study, Kim et al. Mouthguard biosensors were screen-printed on a flexible PET substrate with three layers. The second layer consisted of a Prussian-blue graphite ink as the reference and counter electrodes. The third layer consisted of a dielectric paste which served as the insulator.
Each layer was thermally cured after printing. The working electrode was modified with the uricase enzyme and antibiofouling membranes. The efficacy of the biosensor was successfully assessed in artificial saliva, undiluted human saliva, and in a hyperuricemia patient with and without medication control. Real-time testing of the devices presented are needed to assess the true clinical efficacy of such technology for sports. Mouthguard biosensor for the continuous monitoring of metabolites from saliva.
The good stability is reflective of the PPD coating against co-existing fouling constituents. Chemically modified Prussian-Blue carbon comprised the working electrode. The amperometric printed circuit board PCB was the size of a 1 cent coin. Figures were reproduced with permission from Kim et al. In the following work, researchers fabricated a MEMS-based sensor designed for the human oral cavity to enable the noninvasive measurement of salivary glucose.
The researchers demonstrated the capability of the sensor and wireless communication platform to monitor salivary glucose in a phantom mandible mimicking the environment of the human oral cavity. While a sensor embedded in a cavity may be far removed for sports medicine applications, the work demonstrated the ability to detect glucose, a key marker indicative of fatigue levels.
Recently, a collaborative team from PARC, a Xerox Company, NextFlex, and the University of California, San Diego fabricated a smart mouthguard biosensor to detect early signs of dehydration, exhaustion, and mental state based on lactate and glucose measurements from saliva. An encapsulant was applied on top of the sensor to protect it from saliva. Chronoamperometry, based on enzymatic oxidation of the target species, was utilized as the electrochemical detection method.
The device enabled replacement of the electrodes to measure other biomarkers such as UA. While the application of mouthguards to quantify biomarkers is relatively new from a commercial standpoint, there remains a clinical need to validate the sensitivity and reliability of these devices in real-time during athletic scenarios.
The main drawback of saliva being used for real-time measurements of human performance compared to eccrine sweat is that it is limited to sports which require mouthguard devices. In addition, analyte concentrations found in saliva are far below those detected in eccrine sweat Table 4.
Furthermore, current devices discussed in literature have not shown continuous measurements of biomarkers from saliva to be possible Table 3. Developing biosensors with high sensitivity and stability is the initial step to develop these devices for use in sports. Sweat provides an ideal source toward the continuous and noninvasive measurement of biomarkers, such as sodium, chlorine, potassium, lactate, calcium, glucose, ammonia, ethanol, urea, cortisol, and various neuropeptides and cytokines.
Disadvantages of using eccrine sweat, include skin contamination, existence of dried sweat on the glands thereby skewing analyte measurements, and low-sampling rates. However, there remains a need to ensure that the administered current intensity does not cause cathodal vasodilation or erythema, leading to discomfort to the athlete.
Wearable devices to measure biomarkers from sweat must adhere to the following set of requirements: 1 the sweat analyte must be correlated to those found in blood circulation, 2 the sweat rate must be steady or measured as a result of analyte dilution or sensor-dependencies on sweat rate, 3 sweat must be transported and coupled to sensors in an expeditious manner to minimize analyte exchange with the skin or transport materials themselves, and 4 continuous raw data needs to be shown for the measured analyte in both sweat and blood to ensure that various confounding factors have been resolved e.
In this section, we highlight the scope of this technology by discussing commercial devices and those presented in recent literature to measure specific analytes crucial to human performance such as sodium, chloride, potassium, lactate, calcium, and glucose Table 4. Epicore Biosystems has established large volume manufacturing for the continuous and noninvasive measurement of various biomarkers from eccrine sweat. Halo H1 has developed the first noninvasive wristband sensor for monitoring hydration levels in athletes by utilizing optical and electrical sensors.
Baker et al. Profuse sweaters required increased dietary consumption of sodium to compensate for such losses during the preseason. This study is significant in that it is the first study pertaining to the quantification of sweat sodium losses to monitor hydration in professional NFL players on a single team utilizing an epidermal patch.
A summary of current techniques, challenges, and recommendations used to measure sweat loss and sweat rate are presented in Table 5. Bandodkar et al. The screen printed device withstood mechanical deformation without impeding analyte detection and wireless transmission thereby highlighting its translational potential for the sporting community.
While the use of such adhesion platforms is not appropriate for long-term use in sports, the electrochemical performance and stability of the device demonstrates promise for athletics. The MWCNTs were functionalized with a cyclo-oligomeric clixarene to selectively form a supramolecular complex with sodium ions. Upon complex formation, the charge carriers migrated from the layer to impede current flow to allow the detection of sodium ions at physiologically appropriate levels for healthy and ailing individuals.
In another study, a solid-contact ion-selective electrode and a liquid-junction-free reference electrode were combined together on a dual screen-printed substrate for the detection of sodium from eccrine sweat. The system was connected to a miniaturized wireless communications platform entrapped in a 3D printed case to make it wearable.
Sodium concentrations were monitored continuously on healthy volunteers during stationary cycling sessions using the device. Comparison of these results to that of current analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectroscopy, ion chromatography, or commercial sodium meters e. Xu et al. The sensor was comprised of poly 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene PEDOT doped with poly styrenesulfonate PSS and screen-printed on carbon-based ion-selective and reference electrodes.
The sensor demonstrated a smaller and faster response compared to current standard of care e. However, while such core-sensor technology is promising, it remains impractical for sports medicine. Gao et al. We expand on this particular work in the section about glucose measurement from eccrine sweat. Lactate and ammonia are small molecules produced during anaerobic activity in the absence of adequate oxygen. By combining both types of sensors, this wearable device served as a combinatorial platform for physicochemical and electrophysiological monitoring.
Real-time monitoring showed that the ECG compared to current wearable devices was not affected by concurrent lactate detection. In addition, lactate levels measured by the biosensor closely approximated the expected sweat-lactate profile for increasing intensity workouts.
In another study, a biosensor using luminol as the signaling species was fabricated for lactate detection.
Research on Sports Electronic Instrument and Equipment
Summary of the most important categories to consider when selecting a wearable brand for research. New fitness trackers and smartwatches are released to the consumer market every year. These devices are equipped with different sensors, algorithms, and accompanying mobile apps.
Integrated AI technology and robotics produce operator free videos, eliminating excess production costs. Schedule, produce and edit productions remotely and manage overlays, graphics, and branding on streams. Graphic scoreboard integration via scoreboard connection or optical recognition camera. Real-time player and team analysis, with telestrator, visual heat map and performance monitoring speed, heart rate, g-force, etc. Broadcast games and practices and let fans view in up to 4K resolution from any device, at any time.
Sport & Entertainment
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With the development of the modern science and technology, new and high technology and the electronic instrument and equipment has been widely used in the referee work of the large scale track and field matches, which is also a prominent feature of the modern large scale track and field matches. Taking the referee work of the track and field match of the Ninth National Games as an example, this article carries on the discussion on the function of the electronic equipment in the large scale track and field competition, to provide a reference for further deepening the recognition and understanding of the characteristics of the modern large scale track and field matches. Present situation and the development of the sports electronic equipment Since the development of modern Olympic sports competition, sports have become a part of peoples life around the world. For more than years, with the continuous improvement of the level of the competitive sports, the competition has become increasingly fierce, and in the competitive sports games, ranking the performance in one second per one hundred, or even one per one thousand seconds is very normal. So, quickly, accurately and fairly determining the timing and scoring of the achievement, and the instrument and the equipment assessing the scores have become one of the necessary sports facilities of the development of competitive sports.
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Вот тут-то вы и рассмотрели его кольцо. Глаза Клушара расширились. - Так полицейский сказал вам, что это я взял кольцо.
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Бармен с видимым облегчением приготовил ему напиток. Беккер оглядел затейливое убранство бара и подумал, что все, что с ним происходит, похоже на сон. В любой другой реальности было бы куда больше здравого смысла.
Я, университетский профессор, - подумал он, - выполняю секретную миссию.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: 6 MOST SHOCKING REFEREE MOMENTS IN SPORTS
Буквы. - Да, если верить ему - не английские. - Стратмор приподнял брови, точно ждал объяснений. - Японские иероглифы. Стратмор покачал головой. - Это и мне сразу пришло в голову.
Да… и… - слова застревали у нее в горле. Он убил Дэвида. Бринкерхофф положил руку ей на плечо. - Мы почти приехали, мисс Флетчер. Держитесь.
Пуля пролетела мимо в тот миг, когда маленький мотоцикл ожил и рванулся. Беккер изо всех сил цеплялся за жизнь. Мотоцикл, виляя, мчался по газону и, обогнув угол здания, выехал на шоссе.
ГЛАВА 86 Когда Сьюзан, едва переводя дыхание, появилась в дверях кабинета коммандера, тот сидел за своим столом, сгорбившись и низко опустив голову, и в свете монитора она увидела капельки пота у него на лбу. Сирена выла не преставая. Сьюзан подбежала к. - Коммандер.
Она сказала ему, что их брак исчерпал себя, что она не собирается до конца дней жить в тени другой женщины. Вой сирен вывел его из задумчивости. Его аналитический ум искал выход из создавшегося положения. Сознание нехотя подтверждало то, о чем говорили чувства.
ГЛАВА 87 Веспа выехала в тихий переулок Каретерра-де-Хуелва. Еще только начинало светать, но движение уже было довольно оживленным: молодые жители Севильи возвращались после ночных пляжных развлечений.
Кто бы мог подумать. - Проваливай! - крикнула. - Вон. Беккер совсем забыл о кольце, об Агентстве национальной безопасности, обо всем остальном, проникшись жалостью к девушке.
Наверное, родители отправили ее сюда по какой-то школьной образовательной программе, снабдив кредитной карточкой Виза, а все кончилось тем, что она посреди ночи вкалывает себе в туалете наркотик.
Она опустилась на стул. - В четыре сорок пять ко мне на личный телефон поступил звонок. Вы можете сказать, откуда звонили? - Он проклинал себя за то, что не выяснил этого раньше. Телефонистка нервно проглотила слюну. - На этой машине нет автоматического определителя номера, сэр.
Уничтожение ТРАНСТЕКСТА. Уже несколько лет Танкадо пытался рассказать миру о ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ, но ему никто не хотел верить. Поэтому он решил уничтожить это чудовище в одиночку. Он до самой смерти боролся за то, во что верил, - за право личности на неприкосновенность частной жизни.