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Industrial fabrication colognes and scented and toilet waters

Industrial fabrication colognes and scented and toilet waters

Download a PDF version of this article here. The foundations of the modern fragrance industry can be traced to fragrance producers established in the south of France during the sixteenth century. Throughout the nineteenth century, the farms, essential oil producers, and manufacturers of branded fragrances, were family enterprises. During the twentieth century, the fragrance industry underwent radical changes.

VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Top 10 Most Complimented Best Mens Fragrances of all Time

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Eau de toilette

Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules. However, at the surface, those molecules are surrounded by other water molecules only on the water side.

A tension is created as the water molecules at the surface are pulled into the body of the water. This tension causes water to bead up on surfaces glass, fabric , which slows wetting of the surface and inhibits the cleaning process. You can see surface tension at work by placing a drop of water onto a counter top. The drop will hold its shape and will not spread.

In the cleaning process, surface tension must be reduced so water can spread and wet surfaces. Chemicals that are able to do this effectively are called surface active agents, or surfactants. Surfactants perform other important functions in cleaning, such as loosening, emulsifying dispersing in water and holding soil in suspension until it can be rinsed away.

Surfactants can also provide alkalinity, which is useful in removing acidic soils. Surfactants are classified by their ionic electrical charge properties in water: anionic negative charge , non-ionic no charge , cationic positive charge and amphoteric either positive or negative charge. Soap is an anionic surfactant. Soaps are water-soluble sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids.

Soaps are made from fats and oils, or their fatty acids, by treating them chemically with a strong alkali. The fats and oils used in soap-making come from animal or plant sources.

Each fat or oil is made up of a distinctive mixture of several different triglycerides. In a triglyceride molecule, three fatty acid molecules are attached to one molecule of glycerine.

There are many types of triglycerides; each type consists of its own particular combination of fatty acids. Fatty acids are the components of fats and oils that are used in making soap. They are weak acids composed of two parts:. A carboxylic acid group consisting of one hydrogen H atom, two oxygen O atoms, and one carbon C atom, plus a hydrocarbon chain attached to the carboxylic acid group. Generally, it is made up of a long straight chain of carbon C atoms each carrying two hydrogen H atoms.

An alkali is a soluble salt of an alkali metal like sodium or potassium. Originally, the alkalis used in soap-making were obtained from the ashes of plants, but they are now made commercially.

Today, the term alkali describes a substance that chemically is a base the opposite of an acid and that reacts with and neutralizes an acid. The common alkalis used in soap-making are sodium hydroxide NaOH , also called caustic soda; and potassium hydroxide KOH , also called caustic potash.

Saponification of fats and oils is the most widely used soap-making process. This method involves heating fats and oils and reacting them with a liquid alkali to produce soap and water neat soap plus glycerine. The other major soap-making process is the neutralization of fatty acids with an alkali. Fats and oils are hydrolyzed split with a high-pressure steam to yield crude fatty acids and glycerine. The fatty acids are then purified by distillation and neutralized with an alkali to produce soap and water neat soap.

When the alkali is sodium hydroxide, a sodium soap is formed. When the alkali is potassium hydroxide, a potassium soap is formed. Potassium soaps are softer and are found in some liquid hand soaps and shaving creams. The carboxylate end of the soap molecule is attracted to water. It is called the hydrophilic water-loving end. The hydrocarbon chain is attracted to oil and grease and repelled by water. It is known as the hydrophobic water-hating end. Although soap is a good cleaning agent, its effectiveness is reduced when used in hard water.

Hardness in water is caused by the presence of mineral salts like calcium Ca and magnesium Mg and occasionally iron Fe and manganese Mn. The mineral salts react with soap to form an insoluble precipitate known as soap film or scum. Soap film does not rinse away easily. It tends to remain behind and produces visible deposits on clothing and makes fabrics feel stiff.

It also attaches to the insides of bathtubs, sinks and washing machines. Some soap is used up by reacting with hard water minerals to form the film. This reduces the amount of soap available for cleaning. Even when clothes are washed in soft water, some hardness minerals are introduced by the soil on clothes.

A detergent is an effective cleaning product because it contains one or more surfactants. Because of their chemical makeup, the surfactants used in detergents can be engineered to perform well under a variety of conditions. Such surfactants are less sensitive than soap to the hardness minerals in water and most will not form a film. Detergent surfactants were developed in response to a shortage of animal and vegetable fats and oils during World War I and World War II.

In addition, a substance that was resistant to hard water was needed to make cleaning more effective. At that time, petroleum was found to be a plentiful source for the manufacture of these surfactants. Like the fatty acids used in soap-making, both petroleum and fats and oils contain hydrocarbon chains that are repelled by water but attracted to oil and grease in soils.

These hydrocarbon chain sources are used to make the water-hating end of the surfactant molecule. Chemicals, such as sulphur trioxide, sulphuric acid and ethylene oxide, are used to produce the water-loving end of the surfactant molecule. As in soap-making, an alkali is used to make detergent surfactants. Sodium and potassium hydroxide are the most common alkalis.

The chemical reacts with hydrocarbons derived from petroleum or fats and oils to produce new acids similar to fatty acids. A second reaction adds an alkali to the new acids to produce one type of anionic surfactant molecule. These non-ionic surfactants can be reacted further with sulphur-containing acids to form another type of anionic surfactant. These types of energy interact and should be in proper balance. Water alone will not remove this soil.

One important reason is that oil and grease present in soil repel the water molecules. At the same time, the water-loving end is attracted to the water molecules. These opposing forces loosen the soil and suspend it in the water. Warm or hot water helps dissolve grease and oil in soil. Washing machine agitation or hand rubbing helps pull the soil free. The origins of personal cleanliness date back to prehistoric times.

Since water is essential for life, the earliest people lived near water and knew something about its cleansing properties, or at least that it rinsed mud off their hands.

A soap-like material found in clay cylinders during the excavation of ancient Babylon is evidence that soap-making was known as early as B. Records show that ancient Egyptians bathed regularly. The Ebers Papyrus, a medical document from about B. At about the same time, Moses gave the Israelites detailed laws governing personal cleanliness. He also related cleanliness to health and religious purification. Biblical accounts suggest that the Israelites knew that mixing ashes and oil produced a kind of hair gel.

The early Greeks bathed for aesthetic reasons and apparently did not use soap. Instead, they cleaned their bodies with blocks of clay, sand, pumice and ashes, then anointed themselves with oil, and scraped off the oil and dirt with a metal instrument known as a strigil.

They also used oil with ashes. Clothes were washed without soap in streams. Soap got its name, according to an ancient Roman legend, from Mount Sapo, where animals were sacrificed.

Rain washed a mixture of melted animal fat, or tallow, and wood ashes down into the clay soil along the Tiber River. Women found that this clay mixture made their wash cleaner with much less effort. The ancient Germans and Gauls are also credited with discovering a substance called soap, made of tallow and ashes, that they used to tint their hair red. As Roman civilization advanced, so did bathing.

The first of the famous Roman baths, supplied with water from their aqueducts, was built about B. The baths were luxurious, and bathing became very popular. By the second century A. After the fall of Rome in A. This lack of personal cleanliness and related unsanitary living conditions contributed heavily to the great plagues of the Middle Ages, and especially to the Black Death of the 14th century.

Still, there were areas of the medieval world where personal cleanliness remained important. Daily bathing was a common custom in Japan during the Middle Ages.

And in Iceland, pools warmed with water from hot springs were popular gathering places on Saturday evenings. Soap-making was an established craft in Europe by the seventh century. Soap-maker guilds guarded their trade secrets closely. Vegetable and animal oils were used with ashes of plants, along with fragrance.

Lost and Found: Intellectual Property of the Fragrance Industry; From Trade Secret to Trade Dress

Healthy Cleaning This section is intended to be a valuable information resource about cleaning products for consumers, educators, students, media, government officials, businesses and others. Water, the liquid commonly used for cleaning, has a property called surface tension. In the body of the water, each molecule is surrounded and attracted by other water molecules.

It has happened to everyone — after the excitement of purchasing a favorite perfume at an incredible price, we notice that scent faded away after no more than hours. Of course, the first think that comes to mind is that the perfume is a cheap replica. However, this is not always the case.

Go boutique, my man. In order to find individuality, turn to independent perfumers. Skip the airport duty free. These selections exemplify the reasons to leave your Axe and Old Spice to the middle schoolers.

How to Make Perfume

This application claims foreign priority benefits under Tide 35 U. The present invention relates to powdered water-soluble polymers and, more particularly, to the use of powdered water-soluble polymers in toilet block applications. Until U. Although the water-soluble compositions of U. According to the present invention, there is provided a composition of matter which comprises a powdered, water-soluble, water-swellable or water-dispersible polymer, a compatible fragrance, either as a blend of fragrance with polymer or separately mixed, and one or more surfactants. The composition of matter of the present invention, has, unexpectedly and advantageously, excellent foaming properties, better than the compositions of U. Also provided are a toilet element, which may be a toilet rim block for use in a toilet bowl, or a free-standing block for use in a toilet cistern, molded using the composition of the present invention and processes for preparing the composition of matter and toilet element of the present invention. In order that the invention may be more readily understood, and so that further features thereof may be more readily appreciated, examples of the invention will now be described, by way of example only, with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:. A composition of matter of the present invention comprises a powdered, water-soluble, water-swellable or water-dispersible polymer, a compatible fragrance and one or more surfactants.

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In modern perfumery, the term eau de toilette is generally used to describe the concentration of fragrance, with eau de toilette being weaker than Eau de Parfum but stronger than Eau de Cologne.

Fine fragrances that evoke emotions have long been an integral part of our illustrious heritage. At Keva, we fabricate ingredients which turn fragrances into the most cherished perfumes. From subtle scents with fruity notes to effervescent fragrances which change your mood, every creation reflects the role we play.

Your sense of smell controls what you spend and who you love

Why spend a fortune on perfume or cologne when you can make your own for cheap. Instead of wearing a fragrance that everyone else wears you can make your own unique blend. Your own aromatic creations also makes a thoughtful gift. Did you use this instructable in your classroom?

SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Top 5 Best Creed Fragrances with Joyce Appia

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How to make your own fragrance (toilet water) Eau de toilet. ALTERNATIVE CHANNEL. Loading Missing: Industrial ‎fabrication.

Since the beginning of recorded history, humans have attempted to mask or enhance their own odor by using perfume, which emulates nature's pleasant smells. Many natural and man-made materials have been used to make perfume to apply to the skin and clothing, to put in cleaners and cosmetics, or to scent the air. Because of differences in body chemistry, temperature, and body odors, no perfume will smell exactly the same on any two people. Perfume comes from the Latin "per" meaning "through" and "fumum," or "smoke.

Toilet Water vs Perfume

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Fine Fragrances from Keva

Smell is the ugly stepchild of the sense family. Sound gives us Brahms and Aretha Franklin. Touch gives us silk and hugs. Taste gives us butter and ripe tomatoes.

GST is the most important tax-related reformation in the country beginning unity in the taxation structure and reducing the various types of taxes that were applicable in the previous regime.

All perfumes are composed of both a base and a fragrance compound. The base is commonly alcohol or water. Ethyl alcohol is generally used because it evaporates quickly on the skin. Other bases include: Coumarin, Benzyl Benzotate, Phthalates, or even beeswax.

- Выключите эту чертовщину. Джабба смотрел прямо перед собой, как капитан тонущего корабля. - Мы опоздали, сэр. Мы идем ко дну. ГЛАВА 120 Шеф отдела обеспечения системной безопасности, тучный мужчина весом за центнер, стоял неподвижно, заложив руки за голову. Он не мог поверить, что дожил до подобной катастрофы. Он отдал распоряжение вырубить электропитание, но это все равно произойдет на двадцать минут позже, чем следует.

Что ж, попробуйте! - Он начал нажимать кнопки мобильника.  - Ты меня недооценил, сынок. Никто позволивший себе угрожать жизни моего сотрудника не выйдет отсюда.

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  1. Gardazuru

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