Manufactory slabs, panels and flooring of floors and coatings
Epoxy floor coatings are commonly used for commercial and industrial flooring. Epoxy coatings are normally applied over concrete floors to provide a high-performance, smooth, and durable surface that can last many years and withstand heavy loads. Many industrial sites, warehouses, and commercial buildings rely on epoxy floors to maintain clean and safe conditions for workers, equipment, and inventory. An epoxy coating requires a clean and slightly porous surface to adhere properly. Epoxy may not bond to sealed or polished concrete. The concrete also must be fully cured.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Learn To Install Metallic Epoxy Floors Like The Pros - Start To Finish
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Slab Thickness Design For Industrial Concrete Floors On Grade
A floor screed is usually a cementitious material made from a or It may be applied onto either a solid in-situ concrete ground floor slab or onto a precast concrete floor unit. There are many proprietary screeds on the market and information about these can be obtained from the manufacturer.
The screed may be directly bonded to the base, or laid unbonded onto a suitable damp proof membrane which is placed over the slab. Alternatively it may be applied as a floating finish over a layer of rigid insulation material. This application is suitable for use with cast-in water pipes to provide underfloor heating.
If reinforcement is required, this can either be in the form of a fine metal mesh, fibres which are normally polypropylene or a fine glass mesh. The screed may be left as finished, or floated to produce a smooth surface on which to lay the specified flooring or finish.
Ready-mixed sand and cement screeds that are factory-mixed and then delivered to site offer additional quality assurance over site-mixed screeds and offer a more consistent material. Some manufacturers provide pumpable flowing screeds which can achieve very level finishes.
Most of these screeds are anhydrite compounds and are based on a calcium sulphate binder. They are quicker to apply than a traditional sand and cement screed and may be applied to a minimum thickness of 25mm if bonded, 30mm if unbonded, or 35mm if a floating finish is required. They can also be used in conjunction with underfloor heating systems where a minimum 30mm cover to the pipes is needed. A bonded screed is bonded to the slab or substrate below, and the main way that bonded screeds fail is that the bond between the screed and the substrate fails.
This is more likely to happen if the screed is too thick. An unbonded screed is separated from the slab or substrate below, and the main way that an unbonded screed fails is to lift or curl. This is more likely to happen if the screed is too thin. Bonded screeds should therefore be thin, normally less than 50mm. Unbonded screeds should be thick, normally 70mm or more, and mm or more if curling must be avoided. Correctly specifying the depth and type of screed starts early in the design process.
The issues that dictate the design of the screed include the architecturally specified floor finishes, the construction tolerances and the provision of falls. There may also be structural requirements such as preventing disproportionate collapse and the development of composite action with the concrete slab below. Sometimes, the use of a screed can be avoided. If a screed is needed it can be either a traditional cement sand screed or more recently-developed proprietary pumpable self-smoothing screeds.
These types are explained below, together with a list of related definitions and guidance on screed depths. There are particular definitions concerned with specifying screeds. These are traditional screeds and are suitable for all applications, provided they are specified correctly. The biggest drawback is the drying time; BS estimates the drying time for a sand cement screed as one day for each millimetre of screed thickness up to 50mm thick.
Further guidance on drying times can be found in the Code. These screeds can be laid as bonded or unbonded. However, they must not be used with reinforcement because the calcium sulfate is corrosive to steel in damp conditions. These screeds are also generally not suitable for use in damp conditions or where wetting can occur.
These screeds are all proprietary products and therefore vary from one supplier to another, the guidance given here is therefore generic and the manufacturer should be consulted before specifying.
If they are intended to be used as a wearing structural screed then the manufacturer should be consulted. A levelling screed may be chosen for various reasons. It might be to provide a smoother, flatter surface than can be achieved economically by the structural slab. Levelling screeds are also used to provide falls or to provide a finishing zone in which different types of flooring may be accommodated. Recommendations for levelling screeds are given in BS Part 1, which recommends the minimum thickness of a bonded levelling screed should be 25mm.
This minimises the risk of debonding, but it should be noted that the tolerances specified for the top surface of the base concrete should be compatible. Where the bonded screed needs to be greater than 40mm the following options are available to reduce the risk of debonding:.
Recommendations for pumpable self-smoothing screeds are given in BS Part 7, which recommends the minimum thickness of a bonded screed should be 25mm. Manufacturers quote maximum thicknesses of up to 80mm and therefore there are less restrictions on the overall thickness. The screed thickness should not be less than 50mm; therefore, to allow for deviations in the finished levels, the specified design thickness should be a minimum of 70mm. However, BS emphasizes that there is a high risk of screed curling with unbonded and floating levelling screeds.
In order to minimise this, the screed should be either reinforced across the joints or made mm or more thick. Recommendations for wearing screeds are given in BS Part 2, which recommends the minimum thickness of a bonded wearing screed should be 20mm in contrast to the 25mm given for a levelling screed in Part 1.
To accommodate possible deviations in the finished levels of the structural concrete, the recommended thickness is 40mm. The specification for the base concrete surface should be compatible. In some circumstances the design thickness will have to be increased above 40mm, but it should be noted that there is an increasing risk of debonding.
For hollowcore units, which often have an upwards camber, especially for longer spans, a nominal thickness of 75mm, rather than 40mm should be specified.
This should ensure there is sufficient depth at mid span i. The wearing screed should be at least mm thick but to minimise the risk of curling, consideration should be given to increasing the depth to mm. Sector guidance is focused on selecting the correct thickness for the screed. Other criteria may have an impact on the design including:. For precast units the surface of the units should be left rough during production and should be thoroughly washed and cleaned e. Where required, the joints between the units should be grouted at least one day before the screed is placed.
Where the levelling screed is designed to act compositely with the units and additional preparation of the units is required, contained shot blasting equipment should be used to avoid damaging the units.
Where a screed is required over in-situ concrete then all contamination and laitance on the base concrete should be entirely removed by suitable mechanised equipment to expose cleanly the coarse aggregate.
All loose debris and dirt should be removed preferably by vacuuming. British Standards Institution, BS Screeds, bases and insitu floorings — Part 1: Concrete bases and cement sand levelling screeds to receive floorings — Code of practice. BSI, Eurocode 1 BS Standards for precast concrete. Innovative concrete Visual concrete Exposed concrete floors Visual blockwork and masonry Visual in-situ concrete Visual precast concrete.
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Publications library RC Spreadsheets v4C. Concrete Quarterly: latest issue. Home Building Solutions Floors Floor screeds.
wpc garage floor panel
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A floor screed is usually a cementitious material made from a or It may be applied onto either a solid in-situ concrete ground floor slab or onto a precast concrete floor unit. There are many proprietary screeds on the market and information about these can be obtained from the manufacturer. The screed may be directly bonded to the base, or laid unbonded onto a suitable damp proof membrane which is placed over the slab.
Make sure that the surface on which the sheets are to be installed is perfectly flat, clean and free from cracks, the seeping of humidity or loose materials. If the sheets are being installed to outdoor plaster, we recommend that they be installed on a surface that is resistant to various types of stress e. It is important to respect the stringcourses and joints, and avoid installing on non-planar surfaces such as brick walls. We recommend using the double coating technique; first distribute a full-bed layer of adhesive on the base with the help of helical-tooth spatulas and then apply a 3-mm layer on the back of the sheet with a flat-tooth spatula. Finally, we recommend that the laid surface be hit with a rubber spatula and to verify that the sheet adheres to the bottom. We advise to not install the sheets in areas that are subject to the passage of heavy loads. Before installing, make sure that the substrate is cured, dry, free of cracks and cleaned of debris, lumps of concrete and dust. For an optimal installation, check the flatness of the bottom with a 3-mm straight edge; making sure that the maximum gap span does not exceed 1 mm. If there is a greater difference, we recommend the use of suitable levelling or smoothing products. The HILITE sheets can also be installed on pre-existing flooring ceramic tiles, wood, stone, cotto and parquet as long as it is flat and compact.
QC Flooring is a composite steel and concrete slab system for which the QC panels provide the following features:. QC Decking is a composite steel and concrete slab system with a neat ceiling, pre-painted or ready for painting. It provides added flexibility in that the cover width may be customized to suit the floor design. QC Flooring.
Until now, the few existing systematic texts on construction materials have primarily been directed at building engineers. An overview for architects, which also considers the importance of construction materials in the sensory perception of architecture—including tactile qualities, smell, color, and surface structure—has not been available. With the publication of the Construction Materials Manual, all that has changed. As a basic work aimed equally at the questions and perspectives of architects and building engineers, it will bring together all of the above-mentioned viewpoints.
Concrete slab floors
Concrete slab floors come in many forms and can be used to provide great thermal comfort and lifestyle advantages. Slabs can be on-ground, suspended, or a mix of both. They can be insulated, both underneath and on the edges. Conventional concrete has high embodied energy.
When building a home, often very little thought is given to the type of flooring and sub-floor structure used. Yet different sites need different materials, with some being far more appropriate for particular sites. The design of the rest of the house will also help determine the type of floor and sub-floor used. Your architect will have good ideas about the best flooring system to use, based on their experience with the type of building system you are using and the site specifics. But it helps to have a good understanding of the flooring systems available, so that you can consider the pros and cons of different systems and materials, and ensure that your sustainability or other requirements are met.
American Hardwood Information Center
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Stronger, more efficient floor slab design creates longer spans and reduces the need for columns within the structure. Using this information the conventional slab thickness of mm. Your post mirrors what I was assuming. Design process. Installing a hardwood floor over a concrete slab.
Strength, stability and performance: The right floor for your build
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If you are installing ceramic tile over another surface, it is important to follow specific recommendations and steps to make sure there will be proper bonding. Ceramic tile over wood, tile, concrete, or vinyl should be installed by using appropriate products that will allow the right adhesion between surfaces. Always be sure the existing surface has been cleaned and leveled.
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