Production fabrication felt
The book presents research from Rob Arch , the fourth international conference on robotic fabrication in architecture, art, and design. In capturing the myriad of scientific advances in robotics fabrication that are currently underway — such as collaborative design tools, computerised materials, adaptive sensing and actuation, advanced construction, on-site and cooperative robotics, machine-learning, human-machine interaction, large-scale fabrication and networked workflows, to name but a few — this compendium reveals how robotic fabrication is becoming a driver of scientific innovation, cross-disciplinary fertilization and creative capacity of an unprecedented kind. Springer Shop Bolero Ozon. Haptic Programming. Communication Landscapes. Direct Deposition of Jammed Architectural Structures.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: How a STETSON Cowboy Hat is made - essplicite.com
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The invention relates to papermakers felts and more particularly relates to a wet press felt for use in the press section of a papermaking machine and the method of its fabrication. The conventional papermaking machine can be described as a highly sophisticated means of removing water from a dispersion of paper furnish.
The machine includes three distinctly separate sections, beginning with the forming section where the furnish is deposited on a travelling forming wire and initially dewatered. The web of paper formed is conveyed into the wet press section for dewatering and then into the dryer section for final drying or removal of residual water by evaporation.
An important part of the process of papermaking is the efficiency of dewatering in the wet press section. The higher the efficiency of water removal in this section, the less will be the energy requirement in the dryer section.
In the wet press section of the papermaking machine, the formed web of paper is carried by one or more endless press felts through one or more presses which force the water out of the paper web and into or through the press felt. In the past, the press felts employed to carry the paper web through the press or presses have been absorbent woven and needled fabrics which are relatively resilient and compressible throughout their thickness.
A wide variety of natural and synthetic fibers, yarns, woven and non-woven fabrics have been put together in a wide variety of combinations to fabricate wet-press felts. The objective is to arrive at a combination of felt components which will receive a maximum volume of water from the paper web as web and felt are compressed together in the nip of the press or presses, retain this water as the web and felt pass from the press nip to minimize rewetting of the paper web and then release the water before entering the press again.
All of this must be accomplished by the felt fabric within the further requirements of structural integrity, runability, proper weight, resistance to filling with paper debris, resistance to compaction and like properties.
As those skilled in the art fully appreciate, most of the fabrics employed to make wet-press felts are compromises, adequate in one or more of the requirements but excelling in one or more of other desired physical properties. Current theory maintains that if the wet-press fabric were more dense, harder and more resistant to compression, there would be an enhancement of water removal. However, if the fabric had greater density and resistance to compaction than now provided in wet-press felts, it would seem that the fabric would have to have a lower void volume and less air permeability.
Thus, another compromise would be necessary in order to take this approach to enhancing water removal. Prior art attempts to obtain greater density in wet press felt fabrics have included installing them on papermaking machines and compacting them during a break-in period.
The phenomenon of "break-in" of a papermaker's felt on a paper machine has been recognized for a long time. The so-called "break-in" period is usually defined as that time just after a new press felt has been installed on the paper machine when its performance is less than optimum. The "break-in" period can last from several hours to a week and is usually accompanied by one or more of the following: 1 lower solid content in the paper after the nip, 2 harder drying, 3 operating problems such as blowing, picking and drop-offs, and 4 inability to run at top speed.
Although beneficial, felt compaction during "break-in" periods on the paper machine is expensive, troublesome and undesirable to the papermakers. Break-in time on the paper machine slows production and causes numerous quality and sheet handling problems. A new felt is more susceptible to filling and subsequent premature blinding during its initial faster rate of compaction, i.
This is due to the fact that the large pores in a bulky new felt more readily occlude with paper stock, fines, fillers, etc. Precompaction has also always been a part of felt making, ever since all wool felts were run in a "kicker" and fulling mill to make them denser. More recently, it was found that all synthetic needled felts could be further densified by rope washing them under a squeeze roll or by applying enough heat and pressure to permanently deform and harden the felt in a nip on a dryer.
In all the cases mentioned above, work is merely being performed on the felts and results in a closer packing of the fibers and yarns to produce a denser and harder felt. Methods other than precompaction have also been used by feltmakers to increase the felt's resistance to compaction on the paper machine e. All of these have helped to some degree. Although precompaction methods employed by the feltmakers to date have been somewhat effective in allowing faster startups on the paper machine, they have been limited in the degree of compaction.
This is mainly due to the fact that during compaction, the felt density and hardness increases with a resulting decrease in void volume and permeability. In other words, the felt becomes filled up with itself. If this is carried too far, the felt will no longer function as a porous capillary structure and loses its water handling properties.
It would be so hard and stiff, the papermaker probably would not be able to install it on his machine. With the current trend toward higher press loadings and faster speeds on paper machines, the development of a compaction resistant press felt has become imperative.
A new method of achieving this has been developed whereby a felt can be precompacted while controlling its void volume, by the method of the present invention. This new method incorporates the use of a relatively non-compressive base fabric and a web blend containing, in part, a solid fugitive material. After needling, the felt is subjected to heat and pressure, thereby increasing both its density and hardness to an appreciably higher degree than current precompaction methods allow.
The fugitive material is then removed from the super compacted felt in order to regain the lost void volume, permeability and water handling properties. The fabrics and method of the present invention obviate the expected prior art problems and permit the manufacture and use of wet-press felts having greater density and higher degrees of incompressibility, without significant reduction of void volumes or permeability.
By the method of the invention, the compressive modulus and elasticity of the felt can be permanently modified without loss of void volume or air permeability. The felts of the invention improve dewatering efficiency of the papermaking machine. The prior art literature is replete with descriptions of prior art wet press felts, belts made therefrom and their use in papermaking machines.
Representative of such description are those found in U. The invention comprises a method of manufacturing a wet press papermaker's felt fabric, which comprises;. The invention also comprises the fabric manufactured by the method of the invention and its use in a wet press papermaker's felt. The fabric is supple but dense and will have both a higher compressive modulus hardness and at the same time a higher level of permeability and void volume while under papermachine press loads, than do press felts of the prior art.
In addition, the wet-press felts made from the compacted fabrics of the invention exhibit the following improved characteristics:. In the initial step, one provides a non-woven web of textile fibers made up by blending together staple textile first fibers of natural or synthetic polymeric resin compositions such as staple fibers of polyamide, polyolefin, and the like synthetic polymeric resin fibers with a solvent removable component.
Solvent removable components are either synthetic polymeric resin staple or natural second fibers, which may be dissolved with specific solvents, to which the first fibers are solvent resistant. Representative of such solvent removable second fibers are fibers of wool, ethyl cellulose, polystyrene, polycarbonate and polystyrenemethylmethacrylate which are readily dissolved in dry cleaning solvents or aqueous acid or alkali mediums see U.
Fibers of polyvinyl alcohol may be used and are removable by dissolution in water; as are fibers of poly ethylene oxide. Fibers of certain polyethylenes are also usable, being removable by dissolution in hot water see U. Although the use of solvent removable fibers are preferred in the webs prepared or provided, other solvent removable materials may be used as the solvent removable component.
Representative of such, less preferred materials are solid granules or particles of solvent removable, inert chemical components which may be dispersed homogeneously throughout webs of the first fibers described above.
The term "inert" as used herein means that the chemical compound does not chemically react with the fibers or fabrics of the invention. Representative of such inert, solvent removable chemical compounds are dissolvable inorganic salts or the hydrates thereof or oxides thereof. The action of such a salt may generally be any of the alkaline metals and preferably any of the non-toxic alkaline earth metals, Column 1A and 2A, respectively, of the Periodic Table.
Additionally, various other metals may be utilized such as iron, nickel, zinc, tin, silver and the like. The anion portion of the salt may generally be any negative charge entity, as the various carbonates, the various bicarbonates, the various nitrates, nitrates, or nitrides, the various sulfates, sulfites, or sulfides, the various phosphates, phosphites, or phosphides, including the ortho, pyro, hypo, variations thereof, and the like.
Generally, the sulfates, sulfites and sulfides are preferred. Moreover, as noted above, the anion may be an oxide of the metal. Specific examples include magnesium carbonate, magnesium sulfide, magnesium phosphide, magnesium oxide, calcium carbonate, calcium bicarbonate, calcium nitride, calcium oxide, calcium phosphate, calcium phosphite, calcium sulfide, calcium sulfite, iron carbonate, iron sulfate, iron sulfide, iron sulfite, nickel carbonate, nickel sulfide, zinc carbonate, zinc oxide, zinc sulfide, zinc sulfite, tin sulfide, tin oxide, silver carbonate, silver oxide, silver sulfide, silver sulfite, sodium bicarbonate, lithium phosphate, beryllium oxide.
Additionally, silicon dioxide may also be utilized. Magnesium carbonate, ammonium carbonate and barium carbonate are preferred, with calcium carbonate being highly preferred. The inorganic salts may be added to the felt in two ways: 1 dry--by shaking or vibrating finely powdered salt into the pores of the felt, or 2 wet--by soaking the felt in a hot super-saturated salt solution, cooling to recrystalize the salt within the pores of the felt and drying in an oven.
The solvent removable components, whether a chemical compound in granular or particulate form or in the form of a textile fiber, is advantageously mixed and homogeneously dispersed with the first, solvent resistant textile fibers employed in making the fabrics of the invention. The proportion of solvent removable component dispersed in the solvent resistant fibers will depend on the volume of the solvent removable component and the desired void volume in the fabric of the invention.
The optimum proportions may be determined by trial and error techniques. However, in general the proportions in the web blend will be within the ratio of from about 10 to about parts by weight of solvent removable component for each parts by weight of the solvent resistant, first fibers. Following assembly of the fibrous and solvent removable components into a fibrous web form, the web may be needled to a base fabric to complete the assembly of the wet-press felt fabric. Techniques of needling are well known in the art and details need not be recited herein.
Needling also compacts the needled fabric to some degree. Following the assembly of the textile and the solvent removable components into the form of a wet-press felt fabric, the assembly is compacted under heat and pressure to obtain a fabric of greater density.
Compacting may be carried out by passing the fabric through the nip of opposed calender rollers, having an opening less than the thickness of the needled fabric. The degree of compaction is optional. The temperature employed during compaction may vary over a wide range. The pressures employed also may vary over a wide range, advantageously 50 to PSI. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, compaction of the fabric is not only under heat and pressure, but while the fabric is wet with water provided the fugitive material is not removable under the wet conditions.
It was found that wet pressing was more effective than dry pressing in the permanent compaction properties of the felts, i.
In a final step of the method of the invention, the solvent fugitive or removable component is dissolved or leached out of the compacted fabric, leaving void spaces in the fabric. This may be done by washing the compacted fabric in the appropriate solvent, under appropriate conditions. The wet press felt fabric may then be dried and made into a belt for use on a papermaking machine. The fabric 12 is made endless by joining the ends of the fabric 12 at seam 14, using conventional seaming techniques.
Base fabric can be woven endless or joined to make felt endless. The layer 16 comprises a base fabric made by the interweaving of a plurality of machine direction yarns 24 with a plurality of cross-machine direction yarns A simple weave is shown but any conventional weave pattern, single or multi-layered, may be used although a relatively open weave is preferred.
Preferred are spun or multifilament yarns of synthetic textile fibers such as fibers of polyamides, polyesters, polyurethanes, polyaramids and the like. Monofilament represented by the same synthetic polymeric resins may also be used advantageously. The yarns 24, 26 preferably have a denier per filament within the range of from about 2 to about Layer 18 is a web of non-woven, staple fibers 20 such as the first staple fibers described above.
The layers 16 and 18 of the fabric 10 are joined to each other by needling so that the staple fibers 20 are integrated throughout both layers 16, Ends 12 of the fibers 20 penetrate through the fabric of layer Void spaces 22 are defined by and separate from the fibers The fabric 10 is particularly useful in the fabrication of wet press felts for use in the press section of a papermakers machine.
As described above, the fabric 12 is made by assembling together the fabric components together with solvent removable components such as water-soluble fibers.
The fibers 28 may be, for example, water soluble fibers of polyvinyl alcohol. The fibers 28 are homogeneously mixed with the solvent resistant fibers 20 and occupy the sites of the future void spaces As shown in the FIG.
Upon dissolution of the fibers 28 or their residue, the space occupied by the fibers 28 or their residue becomes the void spaces 22 described in FIG.
Pressed Wool Felt Process
Vocational Education and Occupations. United States. Office of Education. How To Use This Book xlli.
Please fill in your details to download the Table of Contents of this report for free. We also do customization of these reports so you can write to us at mi fibre2fashion. In reality, textile goes beyond woven and knitted fabrics. It actually starts from Felt. Felt is a material that requires neither the weaving technology, nor the sophisticated knitting technology.
Die Cut Felt Products
Felt , a class of fabrics or fibrous structures obtained through the interlocking of wool , fur , or some hair fibres under conditions of heat, moisture, and friction. Other fibres will not felt alone but can be mixed with wool, which acts as a carrier. Several industries manufacture goods through the use of these properties. The goods produced include wool felt in rolls and sheets; hats, both fur and wool; and woven felts, ranging from thin billiard tablecloths to heavy industrial fabrics used for dewatering in the manufacture of paper. Nonwoven felts are considered to be the first textile goods produced and many references may be found to it and its uses in the histories of ancient civilizations. The nomadic tribes of north central Asia still produce felts for clothing and shelter , utilizing the methods handed down from antiquity. Sheet felts are produced up to 4 inches 10 cm thick and usually as 36 inch 91 cm squares but other rectangular sizes as well as ovals and circles are made. Wool felts of better grades are made of all wool but the felting power of wool is such that as little as 10 percent wool in a blend with nonfelting fibres is sufficient to produce a felt.
US4482601A - Wet press papermakers felt and method of fabrication - Google Patents
What we provide at Masias Maquinaria is the design, manufacturing, assembly and start-up of production lines of felt and wadding of all types and garments made from different kinds of materials. We are specialized in finding the perfect mix through a studied production process in order to obtain high quality materials by means of an economic and operationally efficient process. We specialise in the installation of complete felt and wadding production lines adapted to the mattress market. Our lines have the capacity to blend different raw materials natural, synthetic, or recycled and to obtain a broad range of felts and wadding with varying densities according to their future use within the mattress. We are specialised in the installation of complete felt and wadding production lines.
China E-mail: shyu ustc. Design and fabrication of low-cost, highly efficient and robust three-dimensional 3D hierarchical structure materials for electrochemical reduction of water to make molecular hydrogen is of paramount importance for real water splitting applications. This easily prepared 3D material with excellent electrocatalytic performance is promising as a realistic hydrogen evolution electrode. The article was received on 14 Apr , accepted on 18 May and first published on 18 May
How Felt is Made
The invention relates to papermakers felts and more particularly relates to a wet press felt for use in the press section of a papermaking machine and the method of its fabrication. The conventional papermaking machine can be described as a highly sophisticated means of removing water from a dispersion of paper furnish. The machine includes three distinctly separate sections, beginning with the forming section where the furnish is deposited on a travelling forming wire and initially dewatered.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: China paper making felt factory
The main aim of the research is to reintroduce a novel role for soft materials in the architectural realm. The study explores the potential of wool as a bonding agent, and the felting process as a binding operation via advanced fabrication tools. The new material practice intends to form a methodology where wool is implemented in diverse scenarios, to enrich the architectural space and enhance its tangible qualities. The project focuses on a widely used, yet rarely glorified material: wool. The organic fibre is known for its remarkable qualities.
Felts and Waddings
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A full line of 3M transfer tapes and acrylic foam tape technology is available for temporary, permanent or structural joining to replace spot welds, rivets and mechanical fasteners during production. A wide range of high-performance open and closed-cell foams equipped with high- performance adhesives can be engineered to fit your specific application. A wide variety of high performance materials are offered for thermal management in LED fixtures and other electronic devices. The 3M materials which we offer for cooling solutions include thermally conductive adhesives, thermally conductive greases, thermal transfer pads, thermal tapes and heat spreading tapes.
Felt Production Process
The pressed felt process is the original felt manufacturing method. The process technology is based upon the structure of wool fiber. Short strands of fibers branch off along the main core of the wool fiber.
Sixteenth Census of the United States: : Manufactures: United States. Bureau of the Census. Personnel of manufacturing establishments and their salaries and wages by class of employment.
Custom Gasket Mfg. The most common felt products we supply include: felt gaskets, seals, washers, spacers, stripping, discs, anti-vibration and anti-squeak pads, bumpers, bushings, noise reduction linings, vibration mounts, shock dampeners, heat barriers, wipers, oil and grease retainers, dust and fuel oil filters, sound deadening, padding, insulation, plugs, light seals, lamp bases, lubrication wicking, dust shields and filters. Felt is matted wool which is subjected to moisture, heat and pressure. Wool is a versatile material, enabling it the unique ability to cushion, retain its resilience under pressure and seal out dust and lubricants. Felt is easy to die cut into any shape.
Most fabrics are woven, meaning they are constructed on a loom and have interlocking warp the thread or fiber that is strung lengthwise on the loom and weft the thread that cuts across the warp fiber and interlocks with it fibers that create a flat piece of fabric. Felt is a dense, non-woven fabric and without any warp or weft. Instead, felted fabric is made from matted and compressed fibers or fur with no apparent system of threads. Felt is generally composed of wool that is mixed with a synthetic in order to create sturdy, resilient felt for craft or industrial use. However, some felt is made wholly from synthetic fibers.
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