According to a study by S. At this altitude potatoes grow faster than maize and produce more energy and protein per ha per day. Such areas include those surrounding Mt. Kericho, Kisii and around Taita hills have also been reported to grow potatoes too but in small acreages. Consumption of potatoes has been increasing with the increasing urbanization and the growth of the fast food industry.VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Extracting Starch from Potatoes
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Organic potato production
Excerpts from: Brown Rosen, E. Sideman, A. Shelton, B. Caldwell and C. Smart, Resource guide for organic insect and disease management [Online]. Late blight causal agent Phytophthora infestans is a very difficult disease to control organically in regions where potatoes are grown on large acreage and rain occurs during the production period.
Organic farmers should practice best cultural management to manage this disease. However, in some regions, even when all best organic management strategies are adopted, if inoculum is blowing in from off-farm sources, potato cultivars are not resistant, and weather conditions are conducive to disease development, a late blight epidemic can occur. Once late blight is initiated in a field, disease progress can occur very rapidly, killing all aboveground plant tissues within one or two weeks.
In regions of the world where late blight epidemics occur frequently, prophylactic copper applications are applied. As required by the certification process, farmers must use all available alternative practices to manage late blight, and describe these in the Organic System Plan, before deciding to apply a copper product.
They are regulated for use as disease management tools, with the restriction that they must be used in a manner that minimizes copper accumulation in the soil.
Like any other synthetic pesticide used in organic agriculture, a farmer must first adopt all available alternative management practices and show that those practices are not sufficiently effective. Farmers applying copper products should periodically soil test for copper to track trends in soil copper contents. Copper fungicides can be highly effective if applied prophylactically before infection and with complete coverage of all plant foliar surfaces, including the undersides of leaves where the pathogen typically sporulates.
In a single season field trial at Oregon State University in , four applications of 1. A late blight spray trial was conducted at Oregon State University in Copper fungicides, compost tea, and other materials approved for use on organic farms were tested for efficacy against late blight.
Only the copper materials effectively controlled late blight, as can be seen in this photo. All green plots living potato plants are copper product treatment plots. The potato plants are completely dead in the control and all other treatment plots. Following absorption into the fungus or bacterium, the copper ions will link to various chemical groups imidazoles, phosphates, sulfhydryls, hydroxyls present in many proteins and disrupt the function of these proteins. Thus, the mode-of-action of copper hydroxide or any other copper fungicide is the nonspecific denaturation disruption of cellular proteins.
The toxic copper ion is absorbed by the germinating fungal spore and thus for best results copper must be reapplied as plants grow to maintain coverage and prevent disease establishment. For information on making and applying Bordeaux mixture, see the publication 'Bordeaux Mixture' Donaldson et al. NOTE: Before applying ANY copper product, be sure to 1 read the label to be sure that the product is labeled for the crop you intend to apply it to and the disease you intend to control, and 2 make sure that the brand name product is listed your Organic System Plan and approved by your certifier.
Ingestion of copper sulfate is often not toxic because vomiting is automatically triggered by its irritating effect on the gastrointestinal tract. Symptoms are severe, however, if copper sulfate is retained in the stomach, as in the unconscious victim. Injury to the brain, liver, kidneys, and stomach and intestinal linings may occur in copper sulfate poisoning. Copper sulfate can be corrosive to the skin and eyes. It is readily absorbed through the skin and can produce a burning pain, as well as the other symptoms of poisoning resulting from ingestion.
Skin contact may result in itching or eczema. It is a skin sensitizer and can cause allergic reactions in some individuals. Eye contact with this material can cause conjunctivitis, inflammation of the eyelid lining, cornea tissue deterioration, and clouding of the cornea Extoxnet Absorption of copper sulfate into the blood occurs primarily under the acidic conditions of the stomach.
The mucous membrane lining of the intestines acts as a barrier to absorption of ingested copper. However, residual copper is an essential trace element that is strongly bio-accumulated. It is stored primarily in the liver, brain, heart, kidney, and muscles Extoxnet, Vineyard sprayers experienced liver disease after 3 to 15 years of exposure to copper sulfate solution in Bordeaux mixture. Long-term effects are more likely in individuals with Wilson's disease, a condition that causes excessive absorption and storage of copper.
Chronic exposure to low levels of copper can lead to anemia. Copper sulfate has been shown to cause reproductive effects in test animals. Testicular atrophy increased in birds as they were fed larger amounts of copper sulfate.
Sperm production was also interrupted to varying degrees. Reproduction and fertility was affected in pregnant rats given this material on day 3 of pregnancy Extoxnet, Copper sulfate may cause mutagenic effects at high doses.
At and ppm, copper sulfate caused mutations in two types of microorganisms. Such effects are not expected in humans under normal conditions Extoxnet, However, the relevance of these results to mammals, including humans, is not known Extoxnet, Long-term animal studies indicate that the testes and endocrine glands have been affected Extoxnet, Heart disease occurred in the surviving offspring of pregnant hamsters given intravenous copper salts on day 8 of gestation.
Copper does not degrade in soil and there are serious concerns about the cumulative effect of copper applications on soil copper contents and soil biology. These regulations were directed at perennial cropping systems in which copper applications are made annually, resulting in a high likelihood of soil copper accumulation, but the regulations also apply to annual cropping systems. In annual rotational systems, where copper applications are only made every years, copper accumulation is less of a concern, but nonetheless, copper use is regulated and certified organic farmers in the US are required to restrict their use of copper products.
Copper fungicides are protectants, so they MUST be applied to the foliage before infection. The copper ion is absorbed by the germinating spore, and the copper denatures spore proteins. Once infection has occurred, copper has no effect on disease progress in the plant.
Because there is no 'kick-back', coppers must be applied regularly throughout the potato production season, beginning when potato plants emerge. In some regions, this strategy can result in 8 or more sprays per season.
In dry conditions, coppers stick well to plant surfaces without adding a sticker to the tank mix, so when plants are not growing, sprays could be less frequent. However, when the potato foliage is growing rapidly, applications are required more frequently in order to protect new foliage. In the European BlightMOP project, potato late blight was effectively controlled with as little as 6 sprays of 0.
It is possible that Nordox could be effective at 0. Monterey Chemical, the US distributor of Nordox, is currently investigating the efficacy of lower Nordox rates. Copper is toxic to plants, particularly in large doses and at high temperatures. Symptoms of excess copper are reddish-brown leaves, followed by an uneven yellowing. These leaves will wilt and become dessicated. Leaves in this condition are also more susceptible to frost damage. Copper toxicity rates may result in reduced fruit set of tomatoes and in extreme conditions may even kill plants.
Copper will be more toxic to plants in acidic conditions and more effective against disease under higher pH conditions, so a program to maintain soil pH is an important part of a strategy to maintain plant health.
Because copper accumulation is practically irreversible, limitations on copper use is a serious concern for organic farming. Copper is bound, or adsorbed, to organic materials, and to clay and mineral surfaces. The degree of adsorption to soils depends on the acidity or alkalinity of the soil.
Because copper sulfate is highly water soluble, it is considered one of the more mobile metals in soils. However, because of its binding capacity, its leaching potential is low in all but sandy soils Extoxnet Copper is a necessary plant and animal nutrient, but it is toxic to plants and other organisms at high levels.
It is always present at a background level, but can be of concern in situations of heavy agronomic use of copper compounds. Agricultural soils are reported to have average background levels of ppm Baker , with average overall US level found to be Some vineyard soils in Europe, which have seen intensive use of copper sulfate containing Bordeaux mixtures for years, have soil Cu concentrations ranging from - ppm Besnard Maximum soil concentration rates for copper in New York soils have been recommended based on soil type, from 40 ppm sandy soils to 60 ppm silt loam to ppm clay soils in order to protect against phytotoxicity and negative impacts on soil life Harrison et al Typically, each spray with a copper-based fungicide results in an application of 1 to 4 lb.
Thus, under a heavy copper spray program, toxic topsoil levels could be reached in a matter of decades. Some certifiers recommend that growers include copper in their soil testing program in order to determine a background level and track any changes in that level as a consequence of repeated copper spraying.
Copper sulfate is practically nontoxic to birds. It poses less of a threat to birds than to other animals. Copper sulfate is highly toxic to fish. Even at recommended rates of application, this material may be poisonous to trout and other fish, especially in soft or acid waters.
Its toxicity to fish generally decreases as water hardness increases. Fish eggs are more resistant than young fish to the toxic effects of copper sulfate. Copper sulfate is toxic to aquatic invertebrates, such as crab, shrimp, and oysters. It is used as a pesticide to control tadpole shrimp in rice production. The hour LC50 of copper sulfate to pond snails is 0. Higher concentrations of the material caused some behavioral changes, such as secretion of mucous, and discharge of eggs and embryos Extoxnet, Bees are endangered by Bordeaux mixture.
Copper sulfate may be poisonous to sheep and chickens at normal application rates. In some orchards, most animal life in soil, including large earthworms, has been eliminated by the past extensive use of copper containing fungicides Extoxnet. Copper has been found to suppress rates of nitrogen fixation by the bacteria Rhizobium under some situations at relatively high copper levels of ppm OMRI, Earthworms are sensitive to several heavy metals and may accumulate them in their tissues.
Crop Guide: How to Grow Potato
Upcoming publishing: The statistics show yield per hectare and total yield of table potatoes and starch potatoes by county. These statistics are the responsibility of: Swedish Board of Agriculture. The yield per hectare is estimated at 33 kilos per hectare, which is 18 percent more than in , when a summer drought led to crop failure. The total harvest of table potatoes is 3 percent higher than the last five-year average.
Potatoes are the third most important food crop worldwide after wheat and rice. They grow from sea level up to 4,m above, and have higher food quantity yields and water efficiency than other major crops. There are more than 4, varieties of native potatoes. The UK alone grows more than 80 varieties. About countries worldwide grow potatoes.
Production of potatoes
Please Note: You have clicked on a link to a website maintained by a third party and are about to leave the Potatoes USA web site. The external link should not be considered an endorsement by Potatoes USA of the third-party web site or the company or organization that owns it, and Potatoes USA is not responsible for the accuracy or nature of the content of the linked web site. These programs continually develop high-performing varieties to reduce disease and maximize quality and nutrition. The development of new cultivars is the natural result of cross-breeding different varieties of potatoes. All commercial U. Seed producers must meet the following standards:. Potato-growing regions of the United States boast rich, fertile soil and a climate that is ideally suited to growing potato tubers. Summers have long sunny days and cool nights, just what potatoes like.
List of countries by potato production
This is a list of countries by potato production in , based on data from the Food and Agriculture Organization Corporate Statistical Database. China was by far the largest producer, accounting for Dependent territories are shown in italics. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
For more information, please fill out the form below. Potatoes will grow on most soils, organic as well as mineral ones. But, light and medium texture soils are recommended where mechanical harvesting is practiced, to avoid difficulties in harvesting when weather conditions are adverse at harvest time. Lowest possible soil pH is 5.
Cost of Production
Free 7 day trial — no credit card required. There are more than varieties of potatoes. We also love All Blue Potatoes!SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: Amazing Potato processing machine Modern Agriculture - Automatic Potato Line Cleaning and Packing
The AHDB Potatoes business-improvement programme helps you compare your potato crop confidentially with similar enterprises. It will also gauge how your production costs and business performance Farmbench - whole-farm benchmarking Farmbench helps you to understand and compare your full costs of production at both enterprise and whole-farm level. It is becoming more important than ever for An upodate on the trends influencing the structure and competitiveness of mainland NW Europe versus GB production of potatoes for processing. The overall assessment of the cost analysis is to re-affirm the view that there are some important differences between countries in NW Europe when the cost of production is evaluated on a common
About Potatoes USA
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The potato is a root vegetable native to the Americas , a starchy tuber of the plant Solanum tuberosum , and the plant itself, a perennial in the family Solanaceae. Wild potato species can be found throughout the Americas, from the United States to southern Chile. In the area of present-day southern Peru and extreme northwestern Bolivia , from a species in the Solanum brevicaule complex, potatoes were domesticated approximately 7,—10, years ago. Potatoes were introduced to Europe from the Americas in the second half of the 16th century by the Spanish.
This section displays the historical data as line chart. On the right side you can see the values in a table. Below the chart you can see the values in a table. In our database there are 21, data sets for Cameroon.
Revised October Potatoes Solanum tuberosum are the fourth most important food crop in the world and the leading vegetable crop in the United States. NASS Potatoes were first cultivated around B. At that time, potatoes served a wide variety of uses, such as healing broken bones and measuring time.
Excerpts from: Brown Rosen, E. Sideman, A. Shelton, B. Caldwell and C. Smart,
Seed potato is usually the most expensive input to potato cultivation, accounting for from 30 to 50 percent of production costs. In areas of developing countries where no formal seed supply system exists, farmers have devised their own ad hoc method for selecting seed tubers: they sell the largest potatoes for cash, eat the medium-sized ones at home, and keep the smallest as future planting material. Potato is grown in more than countries, under temperate, subtropical and tropical conditions. For that reason, potato is planted in early spring in temperate zones and late winter in warmer regions, and grown during the coolest months of the year in hot tropical climates.