Units manufactory wall, partition, binders and raw materials for them
Siti Suhaily, H. Abdul Khalil, W. Wan Nadirah and M. Materials Science - Advanced Topics. Bamboo or Bambusa in botanical has subfamilies of genres and there are difference species ranging from the type of wood to bamboo herb. However, each particular species of bamboo has different properties and qualities [ 1 ].VIDEO ON THE TOPIC: Different Types of Wall Partitions used in Home Designing
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A concrete block is primarily used as a building material in the construction of walls. It is sometimes called a concrete masonry unit CMU. A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site. Most concrete blocks have one or more hollow cavities, and their sides may be cast smooth or with a design.
In use, concrete blocks are stacked one at a time and held together with fresh concrete mortar to form the desired length and height of the wall. Concrete mortar was used by the Romans as early as B. During the reign of the Roman emperor Caligula, in A. Much of the concrete technology developed by the Romans was lost after the fall of the Roman Empire in the fifth century. It was not until that the English stonemason Joseph Aspdin developed portland cement, which became one of the key components of modern concrete.
The first hollow concrete block was designed in by Harmon S. Palmer in the United States. After 10 years of experimenting, Palmer patented the design in Palmer's blocks were 8 in By , an estimated 1, companies were manufacturing concrete blocks in the United States. These early blocks were usually cast by hand, and the average output was about 10 blocks per person per hour. Today, concrete block manufacturing is a highly automated process that can produce up to 2, blocks per hour.
The concrete commonly used to make concrete blocks is a mixture of powdered portland cement, water, sand, and gravel. This produces a light gray block with a fine surface texture and a high compressive strength.
A typical concrete block weighs lb In general, the concrete mixture used for blocks has a higher percentage of sand and a lower percentage of gravel and water than the concrete mixtures used for general construction purposes. This produces a very dry, stiff mixture that holds its shape when it is removed from the block mold. If granulated coal or volcanic cinders are used instead of sand and gravel, the resulting block is commonly called a cinder block.
This produces a dark gray block with a medium-to-coarse surface texture, good strength, good sound-deadening properties, and a higher thermal insulating value than a concrete block. A typical cinder block weighs lb Lightweight concrete blocks are made by replacing the sand and gravel with expanded clay, shale, or slate. At this temperature the material bloats, or puffs up, because of the rapid generation of gases caused by the combustion of small quantities of organic material trapped inside.
A typical light-weight block weighs lb Expanded blast furnace slag, as well as natural volcanic materials such as pumice and scoria, are also used to make lightweight blocks. In addition to the basic components, the concrete mixture used to make blocks may also contain various chemicals, called admixtures, to alter curing time, increase compressive strength, or improve workability.
The mixture may have pigments added to give the blocks a uniform color throughout, or the surface of the blocks may be coated with a baked-on glaze to give a decorative effect or to provide protection against chemical attack. The glazes are usually made with a thermosetting resinous binder, silica sand, and color pigments. The shapes and sizes of most common concrete blocks have been standardized to ensure uniform building construction.
The most common block size in the United States is referred to as an 8-byby block, with the nominal measurements of 8 in This nominal measurement includes room for a bead of mortar, and the block itself actually measures 7.
Many progressive block manufacturers offer variations on the basic block to achieve unique visual effects or to provide desirable structural features for specialized applications. For example, one manufacturer offers a block specifically designed to resist water leakage through exterior walls.
The block incorporates a water repellent admixture to reduce the concrete's absorption and permeability, a beveled upper edge to shed water away from the horizontal mortar joint, and a series of internal grooves and channels to direct the flow of any crack-induced leakage away from the interior surface.
Another block design, called a split-faced block, includes a rough, stone-like texture on one face of the block instead of a smooth face. This gives the block the architectural appearance of a cut and dressed stone. It was one of hundreds of cancrete block house designs offered by the Radford company. Concrete blocks were first used in the United States as a substitute for stone or wood in the building of homes.
The earliest known example of a house built in this country entirely of concrete block was in on Staten Island, New York. The homes built of concrete blocks showed a creative use of common inexpensive materials made to look like the more expensive and traditional wood-framed stone masonry building. This new type of construction became a popular form of house building in the early s through the s. House styles, often referred to as "modern" at the time, ranged from Tudor to Foursquare, Colonial Revival to Bungalow.
While many houses used the concrete blocks as the structure as well as the outer wall surface, other houses used stucco or other coatings over the block structure. Hundreds of thousands of these houses were built especially in the midwestern states, probably because the raw materials needed to make concrete blocks were in abundant supply in sand banks and gravel pits throughout this region.
The concrete blocks were made with face designs to simulate stone textures: rock-faced, granite-faced, or rusticated. At first considered an experimental material, houses built of concrete blocks were advertised in many portland cement manufacturers' catalogs as "fireproof, vermin proof, and weatherproof" and as an inexpensive replacement for the ever-scarcer supply of wood. Many other types of buildings such as garages, silos, and post offices were built and continue to be built today using this construction method because of these qualities.
When manufacturers design a new block, they must consider not only the desired shape, but also the manufacturing process required to make that shape. Shapes that require complex molds or additional steps in the molding process may slow production and result in increased costs. In some cases, these increased costs may offset the benefits of the new design and make the block too expensive.
The production of concrete blocks consists of four basic processes: mixing, molding, curing, and cubing. Some manufacturing plants produce only concrete blocks, while others may produce a wide variety of precast concrete products including blocks, flat paver stones, and decorative landscaping pieces such as lawn edging.
Some plants are capable of producing 2, or more blocks per hour. There are two basic types of curing kilns. The most common type is a low-pressure steam kiln. In this type, the blocks are held in the kiln for one to three hours at room temperature to allow them to harden slightly. When the curing temperature has been reached, the steam is shut off, and the blocks are allowed to soak in the hot, moist air for hours. After soaking, the blocks are dried by exhausting the moist air and further raising the temperature in the kiln.
The whole curing cycle takes about 24 hours. Another type of kiln is the high-pressure steam kiln, sometimes called an autoclave. The blocks are allowed to soak for five to 10 hours. The pressure is then rapidly vented, which causes the blocks to quickly release their trapped moisture.
The autoclave curing process requires more energy and a more expensive kiln, but it can produce blocks in less time. The manufacture of concrete blocks requires constant monitoring to produce blocks that have the required properties. The raw materials are weighed electronically before they are placed in the mixer. The trapped water content in the sand and gravel may be measured with ultrasonic sensors, and the amount of water to be added to the mix is automatically adjusted to compensate.
In areas with harsh temperature extremes, the water may pass through a chiller or heater before it is used. As the blocks emerge from the block machine, their height may be checked with laser beam sensors. In the curing kiln, the temperatures, pressures, and cycle times are all controlled and recorded automatically to ensure that the blocks are cured properly, in order to achieve their required strength.
The simple concrete block will continue to evolve as architects and block manufacturers develop new shapes and sizes. These new blocks promise to make building construction faster and less expensive, as well as result in structures that are more durable and energy efficient.
Some of the possible block designs for the future include the biaxial block, which has cavities running horizontally as well as vertically to allow access for plumbing and electrical conduits; the stacked siding block, which consists of three sections that form both interior and exterior walls; and the heatsoak block, which stores heat to cool the interior rooms in summer and heat them in winter.
These designs have been incorporated into a prototype house, called Lifestyle , which is the result of a cooperative effort between the National Association of Home Builders and the National Concrete Masonry Association. Hornbostel, Caleb. Construction Materials, 2nd Edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Koski, John A. Schierhom, Carolyn. Wardell, C. Yeaple, Judith Anne.
Toggle navigation. Periodicals Koski, John A. Other articles you might like:. Follow City-Data. Tweets by LechMazur. User Contributions: 1. Hi, I like to read this topic and thanks to you such a good information. Thank you for the above information concerning production of concrete blocks. I like to know the names of Admixture chemicals and coloring pigments needed to produce a good quality blocks particularly in Africa.
Tariq Munshi. Do you think you an answere to my predicament? Or where do you think I may have gone wrong. Thank in Advance Tariq. Nnamdi Ubadike. The article is very enlightening for a novice embarking on block production.
Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications
The present invention relates to silicoaluminophosphate particles, a honeycomb structure, a method for manufacturing a honeycomb structure, and an exhaust gas purification device. Conventionally, a selective catalytic reduction SCR system that uses ammonia to reduce NOx to nitrogen and water is known as one of systems for purifying exhaust gas from automobiles. Also, zeolite is known as a material that adsorbs ammonia in a selective catalytic reduction system.
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Cork Composites: A Review
Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete, Second Edition, presents the latest developments on topics covered in the first edition. In addition, it includes new chapters on supplementary cementitious materials, mass concrete, the sustainably of concrete, service life prediction, limestone cements, the corrosion of steel in concrete, alkali-aggregate reactions, and concrete as a multiscale material. The book's chapters introduce the reader to some of the most important issues facing today's concrete industry. With its distinguished editor and international team of contributors, users will find this to be a must-have reference for civil and structural engineers. He has an international reputation for his research on concrete. Developments in the Formulation and Reinforcement of Concrete. Summarizes a wealth of recent research on structural concrete, including material microstructure, concrete types, and variation and construction techniques Emphasizes concrete mixture design and applications in civil and structural engineering Reviews modern concrete materials and novel construction systems, such as the precast industry and structures requiring high-performance concrete. Wybrane strony Strona Strona
Bamboo Based Biocomposites Material, Design and Applications
The present invention relates to a honeycomb catalyst for purifying exhaust gas discharged from an internal combustion engine, and particularly, relates to a honeycomb catalyst for use in SCR Selective Catalyst Reduction for reducing NOx in the exhaust gas. Heretofore, as one of systems which purify exhaust gas of an automobile, there has been known an SCR system that reduces NOx to nitrogen and water by using ammonia. In this SCR system, a honeycomb unit, in which a large number of through holes allowing the exhaust gas to pass therethrough are provided in parallel in a longitudinal direction, is used as an SCR catalyst carrier, and for example, one is known, which is formed by performing extrusion molding for materials which contain zeolite as a main raw material. In the honeycomb catalyst using zeolite, it is known that strength thereof cannot be maintained sufficiently when an amount of zeolite is increased, and for reinforcement of the honeycomb catalyst, it is proposed to mix and use Al 2 O 3 and the like as inorganic particles for example, refer to Patent Documents 1 and 2.
Building material is any material which is used for construction purposes. Many naturally occurring substances, such as clay , rocks, sand , and wood , even twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from naturally occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic.
Drywall also known as plasterboard , wallboard , sheet rock , gypsum board , buster board , custard board , or gypsum panel is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate gypsum , with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper , used in the construction of interior walls and ceilings. In the midth century, drywall construction became prevalent in North America as a time and labor saving alternative to traditional lath and plaster. The first plasterboard plant in the UK was opened in in Rochester, Kent. It was made by layering plaster within four plies of wool felt paper.SEE VIDEO BY TOPIC: INDUSTRY ON PARADE RVs / MOBILE HOMES OFFICE PARTITIONS C&H SUGAR TROPHY MANUFACTURE 63864
Cork is a material which has been used for mankind for the last 5, years and it is a strategic material used for multiple applications, from wine bottles to aeronautics. Many of current cork materials are composites, in particular cork materials for floor and wall coverings and several other building and industrial applications. Recent developments in cork research have shifted from the classical cork-wine relationship to quality and environmental issues, exploitation of cork industry residues and new cork based materials. In recent years a number of new cork based composite materials were developed. Cork is the suberous covering suberose parenchyma, or bark of the species Quercus Suber L. It is composed of an aggregate of cells, about 42 million per cubic centimeter, which have five wall layers.
A concrete block is primarily used as a building material in the construction of walls. It is sometimes called a concrete masonry unit CMU. A concrete block is one of several precast concrete products used in construction. The term precast refers to the fact that the blocks are formed and hardened before they are brought to the job site. Most concrete blocks have one or more hollow cavities, and their sides may be cast smooth or with a design. In use, concrete blocks are stacked one at a time and held together with fresh concrete mortar to form the desired length and height of the wall.
Иерархия допуска в банк данных была тщательно регламентирована; лица с допуском могли войти через Интернет. В зависимости от уровня допуска они попадали в те отсеки банка данных, которые соответствовали сфере их деятельности. - Поскольку мы связаны с Интернетом, - объяснял Джабба, - хакеры, иностранные правительства и акулы Фонда электронных границ кружат вокруг банка данных двадцать четыре часа в сутки, пытаясь проникнуть внутрь.
3. BASIC MATERIALS FOR CONSTRUCTION AND PUMPS
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